Ulcerative colitis diagnosis and management represent a challenge for clinicians. The disguises of ischemia and acute infectious colitis continue to confound the diagnosis. The therapeutic options have remarkably expanded in the way of immunomodulators, biologics, or ileoanal pouch surgery, yet all carry potential considerable risks. These risks can confuse and impair patient acceptance, particularly elderly patients and men younger than 30 years. Predictors of outcome of medical and surgical therapy have improved but are far from complete.