- A 43-year-old man presented to the clinic with a 2-week history of polydipsia, polyuria, nocturia, and fatigue. He reported consuming 19 L of water per day and complained of nausea and severe dryness of the mouth if he did not drink every 2 hours. He was in his usual state of health until the onset of his symptoms. He reported no fevers, productive cough, vomiting, or diarrhea. The patient was a nonsmoker and occasionally drank alcohol. His medical history included major depression, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension.
- A 61-year-old man presented to the emergency department with acute right knee pain after hyperflexion of the joint while lying in bed. His medical history was notable for obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. The patient also reported that at age 40 years, mild microcytosis secondary to β-thalassemia minor was diagnosed, and he had noticed worsening frothy urine over the past year. He described the pain as severe, impairing his ability to bear weight and ambulate, and located both over the posterolateral aspect of his knee and the anterior aspect of his tibia.
- A 22–year-old woman who had no notable previous medical history reported increasing fatigue during the past few months. Her mother noticed that she looked pale and suggested she visit her family physician. Her family and personal histories were noncontributory. Findings on physical examination were remarkable only for pallor. In particular, she had no hepatosplenomegaly or lymphadenopathy.