- After 4 decades of study and numerous therapeutic advancements, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can today be considered and managed as a chronic disease, and in some parts of the world, the life expectancy of persons living with HIV (PWHs) is comparable to that of persons living without such infection.1 Since it was discovered in the early 1980s, HIV has been known to affect the heart. As PWHs are living longer, their burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and their clinical relevance have grown, raising important questions about the pathophysiologic process through which the HIV affects the heart despite optimal treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART).
- It takes but one person, one moment, one conviction, to start a ripple of change.Donna Brazile
- “Literacy unlocks the door to learning throughout life, is essential to development and health, and opens the way for democratic participation and active citizenship.”1Kofi Annan
- “A good head and good heart are always a formidable combination. But when you add to that a literate tongue or pen, then you have something very special.”1—Nelson Mandela
- In this issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Chamberlain et al1 report on retrospective research that helps quantify the timing, precipitating factors, and burden of hospitalizations associated with a diagnosis of heart failure. The authors discovered in a population-based study of Olmsted County, Minnesota, that residents who had incident heart failure experienced high rates of hospitalizations, particularly within the first 30 days after heart failure diagnosis, and most of the hospitalizations were for noncardiovascular causes.