Concise Reviews for Primary-Care Physicians
Evaluation and Management of Pelvic Organ ProlapsePelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common clinical entity that can have a significant impact on a patient’s quality of life secondary to symptoms of pelvic pressure, vaginal bulge, urinary and bowel dysfunction, or sexual dysfunction. It is highly prevalent, with roughly 13% of women undergoing surgery for prolapse in their lifetime. Vaginal prolapse is diagnosed by history and physical examination. Additional testing may be indicated for evaluation of bowel and bladder symptoms. On examination, prolapse can represent descent of the anterior vaginal wall, vaginal apex (cervix/uterus or vaginal cuff scar after hysterectomy), or posterior vaginal wall, although it represents a combination of these in many cases.
Evaluation and Treatment of Overactive Bladder in WomenOveractive bladder (OAB) is a symptom complex that includes urinary urgency, frequency, urgency incontinence, and nocturia. It is highly prevalent, affecting up to 12% of the adult population, and can significantly impact quality of life. The diagnosis of OAB is made by history, physical examination, and a urinalysis to rule out underlying infection or other concerning potential etiologies. The need for additional testing is based on the initial evaluation findings, and is recommended in cases of underlying urinary tract infection, microscopic hematuria, obstructive voiding symptoms, and symptoms refractory to previous treatments.