Concise Reviews for Primary-Care Physicians
- Nausea and vomiting (N/V) are common presenting complaints in the outpatient and inpatient settings. These symptoms can be associated with high morbidity and poor quality of life, particularly in those with chronic symptoms. The clinical approach to N/V can be challenging, given the numerous possible underlying causes as well as the vast array of diagnostic and therapeutic options. In this concise review, we provide a practical 5-step approach to the clinical evaluation and treatment of N/V, suitable for application in the primary care and subspecialty settings.
- Vaginitis is a common concern for women across the lifespan. Vaginal symptoms may impact quality of life, and clinicians are challenged in the evaluation and management of bacterial vaginosis, Candida vaginitis, trichomoniasis, desquamative inflammatory vaginitis, and genitourinary syndrome of menopause.
- Gastrointestinal bleeding is a common clinical problem encountered in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. Although the evaluation of upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding is often straightforward, bleeding from the small bowel may pose a clinical challenge. In this article, we review the indications, modalities, and differential diagnoses of small bowel bleeding. On completion of the article, clinicians should be able to identify common causes of small bowel bleeding, understand the advantages and disadvantages of the modalities used to evaluate small bowel bleeding, and enact a stepwise management approach to the patient with presumed small bowel bleeding.
- Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common clinical entity that can have a significant impact on a patient’s quality of life secondary to symptoms of pelvic pressure, vaginal bulge, urinary and bowel dysfunction, or sexual dysfunction. It is highly prevalent, with roughly 13% of women undergoing surgery for prolapse in their lifetime. Vaginal prolapse is diagnosed by history and physical examination. Additional testing may be indicated for evaluation of bowel and bladder symptoms. On examination, prolapse can represent descent of the anterior vaginal wall, vaginal apex (cervix/uterus or vaginal cuff scar after hysterectomy), or posterior vaginal wall, although it represents a combination of these in many cases.