Concise Reviews for Primary-Care Physicians
- Primary care physicians are at the forefront of patient care and often are the first clinicians to triage and diagnose any eye-related complaints. They must be able to quickly identify vision-threatening pathologies, as delay in treatment of an ocular emergency can result in permanent vision loss. This concise review describes the definition, presentation, examination, and management of various ophthalmic emergencies including blunt ocular trauma, chemical ocular injury, orbital cellulitis, endophthalmitis, acute angle closure glaucoma, optic neuritis, giant cell arteritis, central retinal artery occlusion, retinal detachment, and homonymous hemianopia in a succinct manner.
- Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) was first described by Carl Wernicke in 1881. WE is caused by thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism is the most common etiologic factor associated with WE in the United States, but it can occur in any patient with a nutritional deficiency state such as hyperemesis gravidarum, intestinal obstruction, and malignancy. WE is a clinical diagnosis. The common findings include mental status changes, ocular dysfunction, and a gait apraxia, present in only 10% of cases. Only a few cases of WE are diagnosed before death.
- Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is characterized by flaccid paralysis of one or more limbs, often following a viral illness, with magnetic resonance imaging findings consistent with inflammation of the spinal cord gray matter. It is unclear whether all patients with AFM will have full recovery of neurologic function. Since 2014, there have been several clusters of AFM in the United States, with a 3-fold increase in reported AFM cases recorded in 2018 compared with the previous year. Epidemiological evidence supports a temporal association between respiratory enteroviral illness, particularly with enteroviruses D68 and A71, and clustering of AFM cases.
- Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common condition that leads to increased health care costs and decreased quality of life. A systematic approach to AUB evaluation can simplify management and enhance women’s well-being. Abnormal uterine bleeding describes any variation from normal bleeding patterns in nonpregnant, reproductive-aged women beyond menarche lasting for at least 6 months. Ambiguous and inconsistent use of terminology and definitions to characterize AUB in the past decades necessitated a new, consensus-based approach to nomenclature and AUB evaluation.