Concise Reviews for Primary-Care Physicians
- The institutional review board (IRB) is a group federally mandated to review and monitor research involving humans to ensure protection of their rights and welfare as research participants. Clinicians engaged in research require IRB approval for all research involving human participants, whether living individuals, data, or specimens. The process for obtaining IRB approval may seem like a daunting task. However, it is critical for clinical researchers to conduct research in a manner that protects human participants, and it is the mission of the IRB to help researchers accomplish this task.
- Migraine is a common disabling condition that is frequently managed by primary care providers. In recent years, the growing array of migraine therapies has added complexity to patient care. This article serves as a succinct review of pertinent updates and future directions regarding migraine. Our understanding of pathophysiology has progressed along with new advances in biomarkers and genetics. These discoveries have led to a wealth of new options for treatment, many of which are specifically targeted against molecules implicated in migraine headache such as calcitonin gene–related peptide.
- First introduced in 1989, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most widely utilized medications worldwide, both in the ambulatory and inpatient clinical settings. The PPIs are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the management of a variety of gastrointestinal disorders including symptomatic peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and nonulcer dyspepsia as well as for prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving antiplatelet therapy.