Mayo Clinic Proceedings Home

Year Three of COVID-19: Harsh Truths, Brutal Realities, and Glimmers of Hope

Published:October 31, 2022DOI:
      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19, has now killed 1 out of every 303 Americans. While four vaccines are available in the US, and masks widely available, too few are fully immunized and most of the population has stopped wearing protective masks. The ongoing consequences of this include continued excess morbidity and mortality, the generation of immune-evading variants and sub-variants, and in toto are injurious and ultimately self-defeating. Herein we briefly update and review COVID-19 vaccines, waning immunity, and new variants.