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Osteoporosis and Its Association With Cardiovascular Disease, Respiratory Disease, and Cancer: Findings From the UK Biobank Prospective Cohort Study

      Abstract

      Objective

      To investigate sex-specific associations of osteoporosis with incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease, and cancer as well as with all-cause mortality.

      Methods

      In total, 305,072 participants (53% [161,383] women) of UK Biobank were included in this study (2007-2010). Self-reported diagnosis of osteoporosis at baseline was the exposure of interest. The outcomes were CVD, respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), all cancer, and prostate and breast cancer incidence and mortality and all-cause mortality. Associations between osteoporosis and outcomes were investigated using Cox proportional hazards models.

      Results

      In men, osteoporosis was associated with a higher incident risk of all respiratory diseases (hazard ratio [HR], 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.50) including COPD (HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.38 to 2.40). Men with osteoporosis also had a higher mortality risk from all causes (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.38 to 2.11), CVD (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.19 to 2.37), respiratory disease (HR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.70 to 3.24), and COPD (HR, 3.64; 95% CI, 2.24 to 5.91). These associations persisted after adjustment for age, body mass index, and comorbidities. Women with osteoporosis had a higher risk of incident CVD (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.97 to 1.44), respiratory disease (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.33), and COPD (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.52). Women with osteoporosis also had a higher mortality risk from respiratory disease (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.72) and breast cancer (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.26).

      Conclusion

      Compared with women, men with osteoporosis had a higher risk of all-cause mortality, mortality from respiratory diseases including COPD, and cancer incidence. Osteoporosis was strongly associated with respiratory disease and COPD in both sexes, even after full adjustment for covariates, although men with osteoporosis experienced a higher risk of adverse outcomes.

      Abbreviations and Acronyms:

      BMI (body mass index), COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), CVD (cardiovascular disease), HR (hazard ratio), HRT (hormone replacement therapy)
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