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COVID-19 in Health Care Personnel

Significance of Health Care Role, Contact History, and Symptoms in Those Who Test Positive for SARS-CoV-2 Infection

      Abstract

      Objective

      To identify significant factors that help predict whether health care personnel (HCP) will test positive for severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

      Patients and Methods

      We conducted a prospective cohort study among 7015 symptomatic HCP from March 25, 2020, through November 11, 2020. We analyzed the associations between health care role, contact history, symptoms, and a positive nasopharyngeal swab SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test results, using univariate and multivariable modelling.

      Results

      Of the symptomatic HCP, 624 (8.9%) were positive over the study period. On multivariable analysis, having a health care role other than physician or advanced practice provider, contact with family or community member with known or suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and seven individual symptoms (cough, anosmia, ageusia, fever, myalgia, chills, and headache) were significantly associated with higher adjusted odds ratios for testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. For each increase in symptom number, the odds of testing positive nearly doubled (odds ratio, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.82 to 2.07, P<.001).

      Conclusion

      Symptomatic HCP have higher adjusted odds of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 based on three distinct factors: (1) nonphysician/advanced practice provider role, (2) contact with a family or community member with suspected or known COVID-19, and (3) specific symptoms and symptom number. Differences among health care roles, which persisted after controlling for contacts, may reflect the influence of social determinants. Contacts with COVID-19–positive patients and/or HCP were not associated with higher odds of testing positive, supporting current infection control efforts. Targeted symptom and contact questionnaires may streamline symptomatic HCP testing for COVID-19.

      Abbreviations and Acronyms:

      APP (advanced practice provider), ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials (formerly)), CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), HCP (health care personnel), IRB (institutional review board), MA (medical assistant), NP (nasopharyngeal), OR (odds ratio), PCR (polymerase chain reaction), PPE (personal protective equipment), RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction), SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2)
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