- Liang X.
- Xu J.
- Xiao W.
- Shi L.
- Yang H.
|Author||Country||No. of cases||Age (y)||Male||Study design||Outcomes||Adjusted effect estimate (95% CI)||Confounders|
|Yan X||China||1004||60.98±14.97||493 (49.1)||R||Mortality||OR 39.463 (3.851-404.357)||NLR >11.75, hs-CRP, BUN, hypertension, respiratory failure, NT-proBNP, cerebrovascular disease|
|Magleby R||United States||678||67.05±16.65||414 (61.1)||R||Mortality||OR 0.5 (0.21-1.19)||Age, race, CAD, CHF, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, COPD, days of symptoms before admission, symptoms on admission (fever, cough, headache, myalgias, altered mental status, aguesia), oxygen by nasal cannula, oxygen by a non-rebreather mask, high-flow nasal cannula or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, mechanical ventilation, Chest radiography findings (unilateral infiltrates, bilateral infiltrates), viral load by nasal pharyngeal swab (medium viral load [Ct, 25-30], high viral load [Ct, <25])|
|Zhang L||China||409||65 (56-71)||234 (57.2)||R||Death||OR 1.547 (1.029-2.325)||Neutrophil count, lymphocyte count|
|Knopp P||United Kingdom||217||80±6.8||134 (62)||P||Mortality||HR 0.45 (0.11-1.91)||Age, sex, CFS, cough, fever, dyspnea, imaging abnormalities, falls, reduced mobility, delirium, CRP, NLR|
|Russell B||United Kingdom||156||65.18±14.80||90 (57.70)||A||Death||HR 1.44 (0.64-3.26)||Age, sex, SES, ethnicity, number of comorbidities, smoking history, cancer type, treatment paradigm, time since cancer diagnosis, performance status, symptoms (cough, fever, dyspnea), time between first symptom and diagnosis, CRP, lymphocytes, albumin|
|Ioannou GN||United States||10,131||63.6±16.2||9221 (91.0)||A||Mortality||HR 1.02 (0.77-1.35)||Age, sex, race, ethnicity, COVID-19–related deaths per million residents, urban vs rural, BMI at index date, diabetes, cancer, hypertension, CAD, CHF, cerebrovascular disease, dialysis, CKD, cirrhosis, asthma, COPD, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation, alcohol dependence, hyperlipidemia, smoking, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, fever, cold, chills, myalgia, fatigue, cough, dyspnea, sore throat, nausea, abdominal pain, headache|
|de Azambuja E||Belgium||13,594||68.29±16.81||6584 (48.4)||R||Mortality||OR 1.44 (0.93-2.24)||Age, sex, number of comorbidities, comorbidities (CVD, hypertension, diabetes, CKD, CLD, chronic lung disease, chronic neurological disease, cognitive disorder, immunosuppression including HIV), smoking history (noncurrent smoker, current smoker), timing of symptoms onset (before or at the day of admission, during hospitalization), symptoms at diagnosis (systemic symptoms, respiratory symptoms, neurological symptoms), number of symptoms at diagnosis, signs at diagnosis (temperature <38°C, temperature ≥38°C, respiratory signs, neurological signs), number of signs at diagnosis, evolution during hospitalization (pneumonia at imaging examination, ARDS), treatment during hospitalization (hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, corticosteroids, specific treatment of COVID-19, no treatment reported)|
|Rozaliyani A||Indonesia||4052||45.8±16.3||2169 (53.5)||R||Death||OR 0.79 (0.52-1.21)||Age, sex, registered address, symptoms (cough, fever, malaise, dyspnea, headache, sore throat, chills, pneumonia), comorbidity (hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, renal disease, immunological disorder)|
|Aksel G||Turkey||168||59.5 (48.3-76)||90 (53.6)||P||Mortality||HR 0.97 (0.19-4.91)||Age, dyspnea, presence of any comorbid disease, pulse O2 saturation, WBC, CRP|
|Abayomi A||Nigeria||2175||43.0±16.0||1436 (65.8)||R||Death||OR 1.12 (0.31-4.02)||Fever, cough, weakness, loss of appetite, headache, difficulty in breathing, throat irritation, loss of taste/smell, other symptoms|
|Raines AM||United States||440||60.76±13.82||393 (89.3)||R||Death||OR 0.81 (0.47-1.39)||Age, sex, race, BMI, immunodeficiency syndromes, pulmonary diseases, oncological diseases, renal diseases, hematologic diseases, endocrine diseases, CVD, neurological problems, lifetime tobacco user|
|Ramos-Rincon JM||Spain||2772||86.3 (83.2-89.6)||1367 (49.4)||R||Mortality||OR 0.83 (0.62-1.34)||Age, sex, degree of dependence, comorbidities (non-ASCVD, ASCVD, dementia, moderate-severe renal disease), symptoms (shortness of breath, anorexia), physical examination (oxygen saturation <90%, temperature ≥37.8°C, pulmonary rales, q-SOFA score ≥2), chest radiography, laboratory findings (neutrophils ≥7.5 × 103/μL, lymphocytes <0.800 × 103/μL, eosinophils <0.030 × 103/μL, monocytes <0.500 × 103/μL, glucose >126 mg/dL, eGFR <45 mL/min per 1.73 m2, lactate dehydrogenase ≥500 U/L, CRP ≥80 mg/L)|
|de Souza CD||Brazil||9807||70.21±8.37||4662 (47.5)||R||Mortality||OR 0.83 (0.54-1.29)||Sex, age ≥75 y, initial symptoms reported (cough, fever, fatigue, headache, myalgia, odynophagia, dyspnea), comorbidities (diabetes, CVD, hypertension, chronic lung disease, CKD, obesity)|
|Peng X||China||49||63 (53-73)||32 (65)||R||Death||OR 13.4 (1.9-94.8)||Lymphocytes <1.1 × 109/L, fasting blood glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L|
|Elimian KO||Nigeria||10,517||37.2±1 5.7||7070 (66.7)||R||Death||OR 1.18 (0.62-2.28)||Age, male, geopolitical zone (south-west, south-south, south-east, north-central, north-west, north-east), occupation (housewife, trader/business, health worker, farmer, religious/traditional leader, transporter, other), vomiting, travel history, abdominal pain, chest pain, chills/sweat, confusion, cough, breathing difficulty, fatigue, fever, joint pain, malaise, nausea, rapid breathing|
|Jain AC||India||426||49 (21-77)||313 (73.38)||R||Mortality||OR 0.65 (0.08-5.03)||Age, sex, weight, travel, visit: hotspots, contact, fever, symptoms, duration of illness >5 d, sore throat, cough, sputum production, shortness of breath, headache, myalgia/arthralgia, comorbidities, diabetes, hypertension, CKD, CAD/IHD, malignancy, hypothyroidism, medication for chronic disease, SBP, effusions, DBP, temperature, respiratory rate, SpO2, pulse rate, bilateral patchy shadows, local patchy shadows|
|Guglielmetti L||Italy||218||68 (59-76)||172 (79)||R||Death||HR 0.31 (0.13-0.72)||Sex, presence of bilateral disease at computed tomography scan, treatment with corticosteroids, age >65 y at admission, ≥1 comorbidity, severe ARDS at admission, platelet count <197 × 103/μL at admission, LDH >440 U/L at admission|
|Lee J||Korea||770||NR||453 (58.8)||R||Death||OR 0.6 (0.28-1.21)||Age, SBP, heart rate, dyspnea at presentation, mental disturbance at presentation, comorbidity (treating cancer, diabetes, hypertension, chronic cardiac disease, chronic pulmonary disease, chronic renal disease, dementia), hemoglobin, Absolute lymphocyte counts (group II, ≥500 to <1000/mm3; group I, <500/mm3), platelet counts <100,000/mm3|
|Viana-Llamas MC||Spain||609||71 (58-82)||367 (60.3)||R||Mortality||OR 0.735 (0.422-1.281)||Sex, BMI, symptoms on admission (dyspnea, dysgeusia/anosmia, arthralgia/myalgia, asthenia, cough, high temperature, vomiting), vital signs on admission (blood O2 saturation <92%, tachypnea >22 beats/min, disorder of consciousness, SBP <90 mm Hg or/and DBP <60 mm Hg, q-SOFA score ≥2), chest radiography on admission (bilateral infiltration), laboratory findings on admission (albumin <34 g/L, lymphocytes ≤800/μL, creatinine, D-dimer >0.49 ng/dL, hs-CRP >8 mg/L, lactate dehydrogenase >250 U/L, hemoglobin, leukocyte count, platelet count, fibrinogen, sodium, AST, ferritin), adverse events (ARDS, sepsis, acute respiratory failure, bilateral pneumonia, acute kidney injury, MAS, acute heart failure, bleeding events, embolic events)|
|Aoun M||Lebanon||231||61.46±13.99||128 (55.4)||R||Death||OR 0.705 (0.33-1.51)||Age, sex, dialysis vintage, multimorbidities, smoking, diabetes, obesity, heart failure, CAD, lung disease, cancer, history of stroke, dementia, fever, dyspnea, hypotension, pneumonia, CRP, admission to hospital|
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Grant Support: This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 81973105 ) and Key Scientific Research Project of Henan Institution of Higher Education (no. 21A330008 ).
Potential Competing Interests: The authors report no competing interests.