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Outcomes and Echocardiographic Follow-up After Surgical Management of Tricuspid Regurgitation in Patients With Transvenous Right Ventricular Leads



      To evaluate outcomes of elective surgical management of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in patients with transvenous right ventricular leads, and compare results between non–lead-induced and lead-induced TR patients.

      Patients and Methods

      We studied patients with right ventricular leads who underwent tricuspid valve surgery from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 2015, and categorized them as non–lead-induced and lead-induced TR. Propensity score (PS) for the tendency to have lead-induced TR was estimated from logistic regression and was used to adjust for group differences.


      From the initial cohort of 470 patients, 444 were included in PS-adjustment analyses (174 non–lead-induced TRs [123 repairs, 51 replacements], 270 lead-induced TRs [129 repairs, 141 replacements]). In PS-adjusted multivariable analysis, lead-induced TR was not associated with mortality (P=.73), but tricuspid valve replacement was (hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.25; P=.008). Five-year freedom from tricuspid valve re-intervention was 100% for non–lead-induced TR and 92.3% for lead-induced TR; rates adjusted for PS differed between groups (P=.005). There was significant improvement in TR postoperatively in each group (P<.001). In patients having tricuspid valve repair, TR grades tended to worsen over time, but the difference in trends was not significantly different between groups.


      Lead-induced TR did not affect long-term survival after elective tricuspid valve surgery. In patients with lead-induced TR, tricuspid valve re-intervention was more common. Improvement in TR was achieved in both groups after surgery; however, severity of TR tended to increase over follow-up after tricuspid valve repair.

      Abbreviations and Acronyms:

      AF (atrial fibrillation), CI (confidence interval), CRTD (cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator), HR (hazard ratio), ICD (implantable cardioverter defibrillator), IQR (interquartile range), OR (odds ratio), PM (pacemaker), PS (propensity score), RV (right ventricular), RVSP (right ventricular systolic pressure), SVT (supraventricular tachycardia), TEE (transesophageal echocardiography), TR (tricuspid regurgitation)
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