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Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Poor Control of Hypertension Among Young American Adults

Race-Stratified Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

      Abstract

      Objective

      To evaluate the race-stratified trends for prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in young American adults aged 18 to 44 years.

      Patients and Methods

      The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2005–2016 for adults aged 18 to 44 years was used to calculate age-adjusted (using 2005, 2010, and 2015 US Census population proportions) weighted trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American participants as per the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. Trends were estimated by logistic regression models including demographic, socioeconomic, health care access, and Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons as covariates.

      Results

      Among 15,171 young American adults, stable trends for the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension was seen in all racial groups ( P linear trend>.05 for all). The prevalence from 2013 to 2016 was highest in non-Hispanic blacks (30.7%; 95% CI, 27.3 to 34.0%), followed by non-Hispanic whites (21.9%; 95% CI, 19.6 to 24.1%), and Mexican Americans (21.9%; 95% CI, 18.6 to 25.1%). The awareness was stable at ∼43.2% in non-Hispanic blacks, ∼34.8% in non-Hispanic whites, and ∼28.4% in Mexican Americans from 2005 to 2008 through 2013 to 2016. The stable treatment rates at nearly 34.4%, 23.7%, and 20.6%, were seen in non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Mexican-Americans, respectively. The optimal control of hypertension was seen in 14.5% (95% CI, 12.1 to 17.0%) non-Hispanic blacks, 12.2% (95% CI, 10.3 to 14.0%) non-Hispanic whites, and 10.3% (95% CI, 7.1 to 13.5%) Mexican Americans from 2013 to 2016.

      Conclusion

      Nearly one in every three non-Hispanic young black and one in every five young Mexican American and non-Hispanic white adults have hypertension. Our race-stratified analyses highlight the categorical need to improve the abysmal control of hypertension which is approximately 1 in 10 young adults.

      Abbreviations and Acronyms:

      ACC ( American College of Cardiology), AHA ( American Heart Association), NHANES ( National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys)
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