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High-Intensity Walking Time Is a Key Determinant to Increase Physical Fitness and Improve Health Outcomes After Interval Walking Training in Middle-Aged and Older People

  • Shizue Masuki
    Correspondence
    Correspondence: Address to Shizue Masuki, PhD, Department of Sports Medical Sciences, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi Matsumoto 390-8621, Japan.
    Affiliations
    Department of Sports Medical Sciences, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan

    Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Japan
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  • Mayuko Morikawa
    Affiliations
    Department of Sports Medical Sciences, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan

    Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Japan

    Jukunen Taiikudaigaku Research Center, Matsumoto, Japan
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  • Hiroshi Nose
    Affiliations
    Jukunen Taiikudaigaku Research Center, Matsumoto, Japan
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      Abstract

      Objective

      To examine the effects of interval walking training (IWT) on the estimated peak aerobic capacity (e V ˙ O 2 peak ) and lifestyle-related disease (LSD) score while focusing on exercise intensity and volume in middle-aged and older people.

      Participants and Methods

      Men and women (N=679; mean age, 65±7 SD years) completed 5-month IWT. Participants were instructed to repeat 5 or more sets of fast and slow walking for 3 minutes each at 70% or more and 40% e V ˙ O 2 peak for walking, respectively, per day for 4 or more d/wk. This study was conducted from April 1, 2005, through February 29, 2008.

      Results

      Interval walking training increased e V ˙ O 2 peak by 14% and decreased LSD score by 17% on average (P<.001). During 5-month IWT, fast and slow walking times were 88±65 SD and 100±86 min/wk, respectively, but varied among participants. We divided participants into approximately 10 bins for 6 minutes each of fast and slow walking times per week up to 60 min/wk, and above this time, approximately 8 bins for 30 or 60 minutes each of fast and slow walking up to the maximal time. We found that both e V ˙ O 2 peak and LSD score improved as fast walking time per week increased up to 50 min/wk (R2=0.94; P<.001 for e V ˙ O 2 peak ; R2=0.51; P=.03 for LSDS) but plateaued above this time. In contrast, improvement in neither e V ˙ O 2 peak nor LSDS was positively correlated with slow or total walking time per week. Multiple regression analyses confirmed that fast walking time per week was the major determinant of improvements in e V ˙ O 2 peak (P<.001) and LSD score (P=.001).

      Conclusion

      High-intensity walking time during IWT is a key factor to increase e V ˙ O 2 peak and decrease LSD score in middle-aged and older people.

      Abbreviations and Acronyms:

      BMI (body mass index), DBP (diastolic blood pressure), eV˙O2peak (estimated peak aerobic capacity), HR (heart rate), IWT (interval walking training), LSD (lifestyle-related disease), SBP (systolic blood pressure), V˙O2peak (peak aerobic capacity)
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      Linked Article

      • Walking in the Fast Lane: High-Intensity Walking for Improved Fitness and Health Outcomes
        Mayo Clinic ProceedingsVol. 94Issue 12
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          The World Population Prospects 2019 report by the United Nations estimated that one in six people in the world would be 65 years or older (16%) by 2050, up from one in 11 in 2019 (9%).1 Although, the increases in the life expectancy and number of older people are considered positive developments, a major concern is whether this greater longevity constitutes years of healthy living and healthy aging, and what impact it will have on health care systems.2 For example, a secondary analysis of 2017 Global Burden of Diseases identified 92 diseases as age-related, accounting for 51.3% of the entire global burden among adults.
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