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Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Increased Prevalence of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in Hospitalized Patients



      To assess the prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and its individual phenotypes of coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease (PAD), and cerebrovascular disease by age and sex in a large US cohort of hospitalized patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).


      A nested case-control study of adults with and without SLE was conducted from the January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2014, National Inpatient Sample. Hospitalized patients with SLE were matched (1:3) by age, sex, race, and calendar year to hospitalized patients without SLE. The prevalences of CAD, PAD, and cerebrovascular disease were evaluated, and associations with SLE were determined after adjustment for common cardiovascular risk factors.


      Among the 252,676 patients with SLE and 758,034 matched patients without SLE, the mean age was 51 years, 89% were women, and 49% were white. Patients with SLE had a higher prevalence of ASCVD vs those without SLE (25.6% vs 19.2%; OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.44-1.47; P<.001). After multivariable adjustment, SLE was associated with a greater odds of ASCVD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.41-1.51). The association between SLE and ASCVD was observed in women and men and was attenuated with increasing age. Also, SLE was associated with increased odds of CAD (aOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.40-1.44), PAD (aOR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.22-1.28), and cerebrovascular disease (aOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.65-1.71).


      In hospitalized US patients, SLE was associated with increased ASCVD prevalence, which was observed in both sexes and was greatest in younger patients.

      Abbreviations and Acronyms:

      aOR (adjusted odds ratio), ASCVD (atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease), CAD (coronary artery disease), CKD (chronic kidney disease), ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision), NIS (National Inpatient Sample), OR (odds ratio), PAD (peripheral artery disease), SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus)
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