Participants and Methods
Abbreviations and Acronyms:BMI (body mass index), CVD (cardiovascular disease), HR (hazard ratio), HSE (Health Survey for England), MET (metabolic equivalent), SHS (Scottish Health Survey)
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
- Body-mass index and all-cause mortality: individual-participant-data meta-analysis of 239 prospective studies in four continents.Lancet. 2016; 388: 776-786
- Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association.Circulation. 2007; 116: 1081-1093
- Physical activity recommendations and decreased risk of mortality.Arch Intern Med. 2007; 167: 2453-2460
- The effects of physical activity and body mass index on cardiovascular, cancer and all-cause mortality among 47 212 middle-aged Finnish men and women.Int J Obes (Lond). 2005; 29: 894-902
- Methodology and response.in: The Scottish Health Survey 2003. Vol. 4: Technical report. Crown, Edinburgh, UK2005: 1-48
- Health Survey for England 2008. Vol 2: Methods and documentation. National Centre for Social Research, London, UK2010
- Exercise and acute cardiovascular events placing the risks into perspective: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism and the Council on Clinical Cardiology.Circulation. 2007; 115: 2358-2368
- Domestic physical activity in relationship to multiple CVD risk factors.Am J Prev Med. 2007; 32: 320-327
- Age- and sex-specific criterion validity of the health survey for England Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Assessment Questionnaire as compared with accelerometry.Am J Epidemiol. 2014; 179: 1493-1502
- Health Survey for England Physical Activity Validation Study: Substantive Report.Information Centre for Health and Social Care, Leeds, UK2007
- 2011 Compendium of Physical Activities: a second update of codes and MET values.Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011; 43: 1575-1581
- Obesity and Overweight: Fact Sheet No 311.World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland2016
- Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: executive summary.Am J Clin Nutr. 1998; 68: 899-917
- Interaction of physical activity and body mass index on mortality in coronary heart disease: data from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study.Am J Med. 2017; 130: 949-957
- Cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic risk factors in obesity.Curr Opin Lipidol. 2010; 21: 1-7
- Obesity and cardiovascular disease.Circ Res. 2016; 118: 1752-1770
- Effects of the amount and intensity of exercise on plasma lipoproteins.N Engl J Med. 2002; 347: 1483-1492
- Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants.Lancet. 2016; 387: 1377-1396
- Importance of assessing cardiorespiratory fitness in clinical practice: a case for fitness as a clinical vital sign: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.Circulation. 2016; 134: e653-e699
- The economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases.Lancet. 2016; 388: 1311-1324
- Physical activity-time to take it seriously and regularly.Lancet. 2016; 388: 1254-1255
- Less sitting, more physical activity, or higher fitness?.Mayo Clin Proc. 2015; 90: 1533-1540
- Fat distribution in men of different waist girth, fitness level and exercise habit.Int J Obes (Lond). 2009; 33: 1356-1362
- Accelerometer-based measures in physical activity surveillance: current practices and issues.Br J Sports Med. 2015; 49: 219-223
Grant Support: Drs O'Donovan, Stensel, and Hamer were supported by the National Institute for Health Research Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, which is a partnership between University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Loughborough University, and University of Leicester.
Potential Competing Interests: The authors report no competing interests.