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Hepatocellular Carcinoma

      This image shows a segment 3 liver wedge resection of hepatocellular carcinoma with background cirrhosis and regenerative nodules.
      Which statement is least accurate?
      • a.
        Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver
      • b.
        In the United States, hepatocellular carcinomas rarely arise in the setting of cirrhosis
      • c.
        Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma include cirrhosis, hepatitis B or C viral infection, thorium dioxide, and aflatoxins
      • d.
        Serum α-fetoprotein levels are often elevated, particularly in patients with large tumors, but can be elevated for other causes
      Answer: b. In the United States, hepatocellular carcinomas rarely arise in the setting of cirrhosis
      Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver. In the United States, most hepatocellular carcinomas arise in the setting of cirrhosis. Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma include cirrhosis from any cause, including the metabolic syndrome and hepatitis B or C viral infection. Toxins such as thorium dioxide and aflatoxins also are risk factors. Serum α-fetoprotein levels are often elevated, particularly in patients with large tumors, but can be elevated by other causes.
      • Zhao Y.-J.
      • Ju Q.
      • Li G.-C.
      Tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma.

      Reference

        • Zhao Y.-J.
        • Ju Q.
        • Li G.-C.
        Tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma.
        Mol Clin Oncol. 2013; 1: 593-598