Advertisement
Mayo Clinic Proceedings Home

Incidence and Trends of Basal Cell Carcinoma and Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

A Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 2000 to 2010

      Abstract

      Objective

      To determine population-based incidence estimates of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC).

      Patients and Methods

      We reviewed the medical records of a population-based cohort diagnosed with nonmelanoma skin cancer between January 2, 2000, and December 31, 2010. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates were calculated and compared with estimates from previous periods.

      Results

      The age-adjusted BCC incidence (cases per 100,000 person-years) was 360.0 (95% CI, 342.5-377.4) in men and 292.9 (95% CI, 278.6-307.1) in women. The age-adjusted cSCC incidence (cases per 100,000 person-years) was 207.5 (95% CI, 193.9-221.1) in men and 128.8 (95% CI, 119.4-138.2) in women. From years 1976 to 1984 to years 2000 to 2010, the age- and sex-adjusted incidence (cases per 100,000 person-years) of BCC increased from 222.0 (95% CI, 204.5-239.5) to 321.2 (95% CI, 310.3-332.2) and that of cSCC from 61.8 (95% CI, 52.3-71.4) to 162.5 (95% CI, 154.6-170.3). Over time, the anatomical distribution of BCC shifted from the head and neck to the torso and that of cSCC shifted from the head and neck to the extremities.

      Conclusion

      The incidences of BCC and cSCC are increasing, with a disproportionate increase in cSCC relative to BCC. There is also a disproportionate increase in the incidence of both tumors in women, as well as a shift of anatomical distributions.

      Abbreviations and Acronyms:

      BCC (basal cell carcinoma), cSCC (cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma), IQR (interquartile range), NMSC (nonmelanoma skin cancer)
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Mayo Clinic Proceedings
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Diepgen T.L.
        • Mahler V.
        The epidemiology of skin cancer.
        Br J Dermatol. 2002; 146: 1-6
        • Stern R.S.
        Prevalence of a history of skin cancer in 2007: results of an incidence-based model.
        Arch Dermatol. 2010; 146: 279-282
        • Lomas A.
        • Leonardi-Bee J.
        • Bath-Hextall F.
        A systematic review of worldwide incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer.
        Br J Dermatol. 2012; 166: 1069-1080
        • Goodwin R.G.
        • Holme S.A.
        • Roberts D.L.
        Variations in registration of skin cancer in the United Kingdom.
        Clin Exp Dermatol. 2004; 29: 328-330
        • Geller A.C.
        • Swetter S.M.
        Reporting and registering nonmelanoma skin cancers: a compelling public health need.
        Br J Dermatol. 2012; 166: 913-915
        • Rogers H.W.
        • Weinstock M.A.
        • Feldman S.R.
        • Coldiron B.M.
        Incidence estimate of nonmelanoma skin cancer (keratinocyte carcinomas) in the U.S. population, 2012.
        JAMA Dermatol. 2015; 151: 1081-1086
      1. Skin cancers. World Health Organization web site. www.who.int/uv/faq/skincancer/en/index1.html. Accessed January 10, 2015.

        • Karia P.S.
        • Han J.
        • Schmults C.D.
        Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: estimated incidence of disease, nodal metastasis, and deaths from disease in the United States, 2012.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013; 68: 957-966
        • Birch-Johansen F.
        • Jensen A.
        • Mortensen L.
        • Olesen A.B.
        • Kjær S.K.
        Trends in the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Denmark 1978-2007: rapid incidence increase among young Danish women.
        Int J Cancer. 2010; 127: 2190-2198
        • Hollestein L.M.
        • de Vries E.
        • Nijsten T.
        Trends of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in the Netherlands: increased incidence rates, but stable relative survival and mortality 1989-2008.
        Eur J Cancer. 2012; 48: 2046-2053
        • Brewster D.H.
        • Bhatti L.A.
        • Inglis J.H.
        • Nairn E.R.
        • Doherty V.R.
        Recent trends in incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancers in the East of Scotland, 1992-2003.
        Br J Dermatol. 2007; 156: 1295-1300
        • Zamanian A.
        • Farshchian M.
        • Meheralian A.
        A 10-year study of squamous cell carcinoma in Hamedan in the west of Iran (1993-2002).
        Int J Dermatol. 2006; 45: 37-39
        • Sella T.
        • Goren I.
        • Shalev V.
        • et al.
        Incidence trends of keratinocytic skin cancers and melanoma in Israel 2006-11.
        Br J Dermatol. 2015; 172: 202-207
        • Perera E.
        • Gnaneswaran N.
        • Staines C.
        • Win A.K.
        • Sinclair R.
        Incidence and prevalence of non-melanoma skin cancer in Australia: a systematic review.
        Australas J Dermatol. 2015; 56: 258-267
        • Demers A.A.
        • Nugent Z.
        • Mihalcioiu C.
        • Wiseman M.C.
        • Kliewer E.V.
        Trends of nonmelanoma skin cancer from 1960 through 2000 in a Canadian population.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005; 53: 320-328
        • Athas W.F.
        • Hunt W.C.
        • Key C.R.
        Changes in nonmelanoma skin cancer incidence between 1977-1978 and 1998-1999 in Northcentral New Mexico.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003; 12: 1105-1108
        • Alam M.
        • Ratner D.
        Cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma.
        N Engl J Med. 2001; 344: 975-983
        • Chuang T.Y.
        • Popescu A.
        • Su W.P.
        • Chute C.G.
        Basal cell carcinoma. a population-based incidence study in Rochester, Minnesota.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990; 22: 413-417
        • Gray D.T.
        • Suman V.J.
        • Su W.P.
        • Clay R.P.
        • Harmsen W.S.
        • Roenigk R.K.
        Trends in the population-based incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin first diagnosed between 1984 and 1992.
        Arch Dermatol. 1997; 133: 735-740
      2. Olmsted County, Minnesota. US Census Bureau web site. https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/table/PST045215/27109. Accessed April 3, 2017.

        • St Sauver J.L.
        • Grossardt B.R.
        • Leibson C.L.
        • Yawn B.P.
        • Melton III, L.J.
        • Rocca W.A.
        Generalizability of epidemiological findings and public health decisions: an illustration from the Rochester Epidemiology Project.
        Mayo Clin Proc. 2012; 87: 151-160
        • St Sauver J.L.
        • Grossardt B.R.
        • Yawn B.P.
        • et al.
        Data resource profile: the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) medical records-linkage system.
        Int J Epidemiol. 2012; 41: 1614-1624
      3. Random numbers. GraphPad Software web site. http://www.graphpad.com/quickcalcs/. Accessed April 30, 2017.

        • Christenson L.J.
        • Borrowman T.A.
        • Vachon C.M.
        • et al.
        Incidence of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas in a population younger than 40 years.
        JAMA. 2005; 294: 681-690
        • Wu S.
        • Han J.
        • Li W.Q.
        • Li T.
        • Qureshi A.A.
        Basal-cell carcinoma incidence and associated risk factors in U.S. women and men.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2013; 178: 890-897
        • Flohil S.C.
        • Seubring I.
        • van Rossum M.M.
        • Coebergh J.W.
        • de Vries E.
        • Nijsten T.
        Trends in basal cell carcinoma incidence rates: a 37-year Dutch observational study.
        J Invest Dermatol. 2013; 133: 913-918
        • Jurciukonyte R.
        • Vincerzevskiene I.
        • Krilaviciute A.
        • Bylaite M.
        • Smailyte G.
        Epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma in Lithuania, 1996-2010.
        Br J Dermatol. 2013; 169: 1100-1105
        • Richmond-Sinclair N.M.
        • Pandeya N.
        • Ware R.S.
        • et al.
        Incidence of basal cell carcinoma multiplicity and detailed anatomic distribution: longitudinal study of an Australian population.
        J Invest Dermatol. 2009; 129: 323-328
        • Bastiaens M.T.
        • Hoefnagel J.J.
        • Bruijn J.A.
        • Westendorp R.G.
        • Vermeer B.J.
        • Bouwes Bavinck J.N.
        Differences in age, site distribution, and sex between nodular and superficial basal cell carcinoma indicate different types of tumors.
        J Invest Dermatol. 1998; 110: 880-884
        • Arits A.H.
        • Schlangen M.H.
        • Nelemans P.J.
        • Kelleners-Smeets N.W.
        Trends in the incidence of basal cell carcinoma by histopathological subtype.
        J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2011; 25: 565-569
        • Lovatt T.J.
        • Lear J.T.
        • Bastrilles J.
        • et al.
        Associations between UVR exposure and basal cell carcinoma site and histology.
        Cancer Lett. 2004; 216: 191-197
        • Jung G.W.
        • Metelitsa A.I.
        • Dover D.C.
        • Salopek T.G.
        Trends in incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancers in Alberta, Canada, 1988-2007.
        Br J Dermatol. 2010; 163: 146-154
        • Evans S.S.
        • Jih M.H.
        • Goldberg L.H.
        • Kimyai-Asadi A.
        Increased burden of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer in young women.
        Dermatol Surg. 2014; 40: 1385-1389