Patients and Methods
Abbreviations and Acronyms:aOR (adjusted odds ratio), CDM (Clinformatics Data Mart), DVT (deep vein thrombosis), FDA (Food and Drug Administration), ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification), NSAID (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug), PE (pulmonary embolism), VTE (venous thromboembolism)
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
- Trends in androgen prescribing in the United States, 2001-2011.JAMA Intern Med. 2013; 173: 1465-1466
- Testosterone therapy, thrombosis, thrombophilia, cardiovascular events.Metabolism. 2014; 63: 989-994
- Testosterone therapy, thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis, and hospitalization for deep venous thrombosis-pulmonary embolus: an exploratory, hypothesis-generating study.Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2014; 20: 244-249
- Thrombosis in three postmenopausal women receiving testosterone therapy for low libido.Womens Health (Lond Engl). 2013; 9: 405-410
Testosterone products: FDA/CDER statement—risk of venous blood clots. US Food and Drug Administration website. http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm402054.htm. Published June 20, 2014. Accessed October 5, 2014.
Summary safety review—testosterone replacement products—cardiovascular risk. Health Canada website. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/medeff/reviews-examens/testosterone-eng.php. Published July 15, 2014. Accessed October 10, 2014.
- Clinical review 1: adverse effects of testosterone therapy in adult men: a systematic review and meta-analysis.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 95: 2560-2575
- Fifty-two-week treatment with diet and excercise plus transdermal testosterone reverses the metabolic syndrome and improves glycemic control in men with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and abnormal plasma testosterone.J Androl. 2009; 30: 726-733
- Androgen therapy in men with testosterone deficiency: can testosterone reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease?.Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2012; 28: 52-59
- Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Research Group. Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women.JAMA. 1998; 280: 605-613
- Thrombotic stroke and myocardial infarction with hormonal contraception.N Engl J Med. 2012; 366: 2257-2266
- Endogenous sex hormones and risk of venous thromboembolism in women and men.J Thromb Haemost. 2014; 12: 297-305
- Endogenous sex hormone levels in men are not associated with risk of venous thromboembolism: the Tromso study.Eur J Endocrinol. 2009; 160: 833-838
LeWine H. FDA warns about blood clot risk with testosterone products. Harvard Health Publications website. http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/fda-warns-blood-clot-risk-testosterone-products-201406247240. Published June 24, 2014. Accessed August 1, 2014.
- A matched cohort study of the risk of cancer in users of becaplermin.Adv Skin Wound Care. 2011; 24: 31-39
- Tegaserod and the risk of cardiovascular ischemic events: an observational cohort study.J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2010; 15: 151-157
- Risk of hyperkalemia in women taking ethinylestradiol/drospirenone and other oral contraceptives.Contraception. 2008; 78: 377-383
- Risk of thromboembolism in women taking ethinyestradiol/drospirenone.Obstet Gynecol. 2007; 110: 587-593
- Comorbidity measures for use with administrative data.Med Care. 1998; 36: 8-27
- Assessing comorbidity using claims data: an overview.Med Care. 2002; 40 (IV-26-IV-35)
- Testosterone increases human platelet thromboxane A2 receptor density and aggregation responses.Circulation. 1995; 91: 2742-2747
- Three-year follow-up of androgen treatment in hypogonadal men: preliminary report with testosterone gel.Aging Male. 2003; 6: 207-211
- The effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on hemostatic variables in women with previous venous thromboembolism—results from a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial.Thromb Haemost. 2001; 85: 775-881
- Testosterone, thrombophilia, thrombosis.Transl Res. 2015; 165: 537-548
- Effects of race and ethnicity on the incidence of venous thromboembolism.Thromb Res. 2009; 123: S11-S17
- Racial differences in venous thromboembolism.J Thromb Haemost. 2011; 9: 1877-1882
- Current and former smoking and risk for venous thromboembolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.PLoS Med. 2013; 10: e10001515
Grant Support: The work was supported by the Institute for Translational Sciences at the University of Texas Medical Branch, which was supported in part by a Clinical and Translational Science Award (UL1TR000071) from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences , National Institutes of Health . The funding organizations had no role in the design or conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, or interpretation of data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the article.
Potential Competing Interests: Dr Morgentaler has received payments for consulting, scientific advisory boards, research grants, and/or lecture honoraria from AbbVie, Antares, Auxilium, Bayer, Clarus, Eli Lilly, Lipocine, Merck, Pfizer, and TesoRx.