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Grant Support: This work was supported in part by a PSI Foundation Graham Farquharson Knowledge Translation Fellowship (J.L.S.), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Knowledge Synthesis Program (funding reference number 102078) and Programmatic Grants in Food and Health (funding reference number 129920) through the Canada-wide Human Nutrition Trialists’ Network, and grant 32003B_156167 from the Swiss National Foundation for Science (L.T.). The sponsors did not have any role in the study design; collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; writing of the manuscript; and decision to submit for publication.
Potential Competing Interests: Dr Sievenpiper has received research support from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Calorie Control Council, American Society of Nutrition (ASN), Coca-Cola Company (investigator initiated, unrestricted), Dr Pepper Snapple Group (investigator initiated, unrestricted), Pulse Canada, and International Tree Nut Council Nutrition Research & Education Foundation; has received reimbursement of travel expenses, speaker’s fees, and/or honoraria from the American Heart Association, American College of Physicians, ASN, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA), Canadian Nutrition Society, University of South Carolina, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Oldways Preservation Trust, Nutrition Foundation of Italy, Calorie Control Council, Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group (DNSG) of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD), International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) North America, ILSI Brazil, Abbott Laboratories, Pulse Canada, Canadian Sugar Institute, Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Coca-Cola Company, Corn Refiners Association, World Sugar Research Organisation, Dairy Farmers of Canada, Società Italiana di Nutrizione Umana, C3 Collaborating for Health White Wave Foods, Rippe Lifestyle, and mdBriefcase; has ad hoc consulting arrangements with Winston & Strawn LLP, Perkins Coie LLP, and Tate & Lyle; is on the Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committee for Nutrition Therapy of the CDA, Canadian Cardiovascular Society, and EASD and on an ASN writing panel for a scientific statement on sugars; is a member of the International Carbohydrate Quality Consortium and board member of the DNSG of the EASD; serves as an unpaid scientific advisor for ILSI North America Food, Nutrition, and Safety Program and Committee on Carbohydrates; and is married to an employee of Unilever Canada.
Dr Tappy has received research support from the Swiss National Science Foundation, Swiss Federal Office of Sport, Nestlé SA, Ajinomoto Co, Inc, and C3 Collaborating for Health.
Dr Brouns has received research support, reimbursement of travel expenses, speaker’s fees, conference registration wavers, and/or honoraria from Top Institute Food and Nutrition, European Commission Framework Programme research programs, Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, DNSG of the EASD, Dutch Academy of Nutritional Sciences, ILSI North America, ILSI Europe, ILSI Southeast Asia Region, German Institute of Human Nutrition, IDACE, International Fruit Juice Union, New York Academy of Sciences, Vahouny Fiber Conference Organization, Laval University, American College of Sports Medicine, European College of Sport Science, International Olympic Committee, Spanish Olympic Committee, British Olympic Committee, Netherlands Olympic Committee/Netherlands Sports Confederations, French National Institute for Agricultural Research, NutrEvent, Health Information Exchange, Foundation for International Education, Institute of Food Technologists, Cargill, Inc, Cerestar Ltd, Novartis Medical Nutrition, Sandoz Nutrition, Wander Dietetics, FrieslandCampina, Nestlé SA, Institute of Sport Sciences Magglingen, Institute for Cereal Research, International Association for Cereal Science and Technology, Whole Grain Council, Coca-Cola Company, European Fruit Juice Association, Stern-Wywiol Gruppe GmbH & Co KG, PURAC Biochem BV, FEVIA, Kellogg Company, Arla Foods, Unilever, Masterfoods, Sensus BV, General Mills, Jumbo Supermarkten, Puratos Group, Koopmans, DSM Food Specialties, Dutch Bakery Centre, International Association of Plant Bakers, Tate & Lyle, Dutch Sugar Foundation, Kraft Foods Group, Inc, Central Soya Co, Inc, TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute, NIZO Food Research BV, University of Applied Sciences at Groningen, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Leiden, Delft, Leeuwarden, den Bosch, Den Haag, Delft, and Nijmegen, University of Leuven, Health Grain Europe, HEALTHGRAIN FORUM, Netherlands Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, Bridge2Food, Danone SA, Nutricia, Scelta Institute, Kokkerelli Kids University for Cooking, Syntens, LIOF, European Technology Platform, and European Food Information Council; has organized a number of national and international conferences and workshops cofunded by numerous industries and nongovernmental organizations; has served on various expert panels and boards of research organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and industries; and established a consultancy firm, Brouns Health Food Consulting, in January 2015.