Patients and Methods
Abbreviations and Acronyms:BMI (body mass index), HbA1c (hemoglobin A1c), mITT (modified intention-to-treat analysis), PN (pen needle), T1DM (type 1 diabetes mellitus), T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus), TDD (total daily dose (of insulin))
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Grant Support: Park Nicollet Institute received a research grant on behalf of Richard M. Bergenstal MD from BD (Becton Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to conduct this trial.
Potential Competing Interests: Dr Bergenstal has served on the advisory panel for Abbott Diabetes Care, AstraZeneca/Bristol-Myers Squibb, Bayer HealthCare, Boehringer Ingelheim, Eli Lilly, Halozyme Therapeutics, Hygieia, Johnson & Johnson, Medtronic, Novo Nordisk, Roche Pharmaceuticals, and Sanofi; has served as a consultant for Abbott Diabetes Care, AstraZeneca/Bristol-Myers Squibb, Bayer HealthCare, Becton Dickinson Medical Diabetes Care, Boehringer Ingelheim, Calibra Medical, Dexcom, Eli Lilly, Halozyme Therapeutics, Hygieia, Johnson & Johnson, Medtronic, Merck, Novo Nordisk, Roche Pharmaceuticals, Sanofi, and Takeda Pharmaceuticals; has received research support from AstraZeneca, Bayer HealthCare, Becton Dickinson Diabetes Care, Boehringer Ingelheim, Calibra Medical, Dexcom, Eli Lilly, Halozyme Therapeutics, Helmsley Charitable Trust, Hygieia, Johnson & Johnson, Medtronic, Merck, Novo Nordisk, Roche Pharmaceuticals, and Sanofi; and has inherited Merck stock. All contracts are with Dr Bergenstal’s nonprofit employer, Park Nicollet Institute; Dr Bergenstal receives no personal compensation. Dr Hirsch, Mr Gibney, and Mr Parvu are employees of BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Inc).