Participants and Methods
Abbreviations and Acronyms:CAC (coronary artery calcium), CHD (coronary heart disease), CT (computed tomography), FRS (Framingham Risk Score), HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis)
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
- ACCF/SCCT/ACR/AHA/ASE/ASNC/NASCI/SCAI/SCMR 2010 appropriate use criteria for cardiac computed tomography.Circulation. 2010; 122: e525-e555
- European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012).Eur Heart J. 2012; 33: 1635-1701
- Framingham risk score and prediction of coronary heart disease death in young men.Am Heart J. 2007; 154: 80-86
- Coronary calcium score improves classification of coronary heart disease risk in the elderly: the Rotterdam study.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 56: 1407-1414
- Differences in coronary plaque composition with aging measured by coronary computed tomography angiography.Int J Cardiol. 2012; 158: 240-245
- Coronary artery calcium for the prediction of mortality in young adults <45 years old and elderly adults >75 years old.Eur Heart J. 2012; 33: 2955-2962
- Coronary artery calcium to predict all-cause mortality in elderly men and women.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 52: 17-23
- Coronary artery calcium, carotid artery wall thickness, and cardiovascular disease outcomes in adults 70 to 99 years old.Am J Cardiol. 2008; 101: 186-192
- Coronary artery calcium score and coronary heart disease events in a large cohort of asymptomatic men and women.Am J Epidemiol. 2005; 162: 421-429
- Prevalence and severity of coronary artery disease and adverse events among symptomatic patients with coronary artery calcification scores of zero undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography: results from the CONFIRM (Coronary CT Angiography Evaluation for Clinical Outcomes: An International Multicenter) registry.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 58: 2533-2540
- Relation between the Framingham Risk Score, coronary calcium, and incident coronary heart disease among low-risk men.Am J Cardiol. 2010; 106: 47-50
- Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis: objectives and design.Am J Epidemiol. 2002; 156: 871-881
- Calcified coronary artery plaque measurement with cardiac CT in population-based studies: standardized protocol of Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.Radiology. 2005; 234: 35-43
- Quantification of coronary artery calcium using ultrafast computed tomography.J Am Coll Cardiol. 1990; 15: 827-832
- Hypertension Among Adults in the United States, 2009-2010.National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD2012 (NCHS Data Brief 107)
- National Diabetes Fact Sheet: National Estimates and General Information on Diabetes and Prediabetes in the United States, 2011.US Dept of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA2011
- Vital signs: current cigarette smoking among adults aged ≥ 18 years—United States, 2005–2010.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011; 60: 1207-1212
- Interplay of coronary artery calcification and traditional risk factors for the prediction of all-cause mortality in asymptomatic individuals.Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012; 5: 467-473
- Coronary calcification improves cardiovascular risk prediction in the elderly.Circulation. 2005; 112: 572-577
- Absence of coronary artery calcification and all-cause mortality.JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2009; 2: 692-700
- 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the assessment of cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines.Circulation. 2014; 129: S49-S73
- 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines.Circulation. 2014; 129: S1-S45
- Statins. New American guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular disease.Lancet. 2013; 382: 1762-1765
- Coronary calcium predicts events better with absolute calcium scores than age-sex-race/ethnicity percentiles: MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 53: 345-352
For editorial comment, see page 1324
Grant Support: This research was supported by grants N01-HC-95159 through N01-HC-95169 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute .
Potential Competing Interests: Dr Matthew Budoff receives grant support from General Electric. All other authors report no relevant potential competing interests.