Advertisement
Mayo Clinic Proceedings Home

Efficacy of Nonloading Exercises in Prevention of Vertebral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women: A Controlled Trial

      A considerable increase in muscle strength and bone mass can be achieved in young adults through athletic exercise programs. We studied a less demanding nonloading exercise program for the back extensor muscles in postmenopausal women who were not on estrogen therapy. We randomly assigned 65 healthy Caucasian women without evidence of or risk factors for osteoporosis into an exercise group and a control group. The strength of the back extensor muscles and bone mineral density of the lumbar spine were measured at baseline and every 6 months for 2 years. In addition, a physical activity score was determined. Compliance was assessed by regular interviews and review of diaries. During the 2-year study, the mean rates of bone loss in the two groups were not statistically different. The strength of the back extensor muscles increased in both groups but significantly more (P – 0.002) in the exercise group. We conclude that postmenopausal bone loss is unaffected by a modest exercise program despite an increase in muscle strength. Nonloading muscle exercise may be ineffective in retarding vertebral bone loss in ambulatory, healthy postmenopausal women.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Mayo Clinic Proceedings
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      REFERENCES

        • Nilsson BE
        • Andersson SM
        • Havdrup T
        • Westlin NE
        Ballet-dancing and weight-lifting—effects on BMC (abstract).
        AJR. 1978; 131: 541-542
        • Heaney RP
        Prevention of osteoporotic fracture in women.
        in: Avioli LV The Osteoporotic Syndrome: Detection, Prevention, and Treatment. Second edition. Grune & Stratton, New York1987: 67-90
        • Aloia JF
        Exercise and skeletal health.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 1981; 29: 104-107
        • Aloia JF
        • Cohn SH
        • Ostuni JA
        • Cane R
        • Ellis K
        Prevention of involutional bone loss by exercise.
        Ann Intern Med. 1978; 89: 356-358
        • Yeater RA
        • Martin RB
        Senile osteoporosis: the effects of exercise.
        Postgrad Med. 1984; 75: 147-163
        • Sinaki M
        • McPhee MC
        • Hodgson SF
        • Merritt JM
        • Offord KP
        Relationship between bone mineral density of spine and strength of back extensors in healthy postmenopausal women.
        Mayo Clin Proc. 1986; 61: 116-122
        • Wahner HW
        • Dunn WL
        • Mazess RB
        • Towsley M
        • Lindsay R
        • Markhard L
        • Dempster D
        Dual-photon Gd-153 absorptiometry of bone.
        Radiology. 1985; 156: 203-206
        • Dunn WL
        • Kan SH
        • Wahner HW
        Errors in longitudinal measurements of bone mineral: effect of source strength in single and dual photon absorptiometry.
        J Nucl Med. 1987; 28: 1751-1757
        • McGovern RE
        • Luscombe HB
        Useful modifications of progressive resistive exercise technique.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1953; 34: 475-477
        • Sinaki M
        • Offord KP
        Physical activity in postmenopausal women: effect on back muscle strength and bone mineral density of the spine.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1988; 69: 277-280
        • Committee on Exercise
        Exercise Testing and Training of Individuals With Heart Disease or at High Risk for Its Development: A Handbook for Physicians. American Heart Association, Dallas1975
        • Riggs BL
        • Wahner HW
        • Melton III, LJ
        • Richelson LS
        • Judd HL
        • Offord KP
        Rates of bone loss in the appendicular and axial skeletons of women: evidence of substantial vertebral bone loss before menopause.
        J Clin Invest. 1986; 77: 1487-1491
        • Block JE
        • Genant HK
        • Black D
        Greater vertebral bone mineral mass in exercising young men.
        West J Med. 1986; 145: 39-42
        • Lane NE
        • Bloch DA
        • Jones HH
        • Marshall Jr, WH
        • Wood PD
        • Fries JF
        Long-distance running, bone density, and osteoarthritis.
        JAMA. 1986; 255: 1147-1151
        • Nilsson BE
        • Westlin NE
        Bone density in athletes.
        Clin Orthop. 1971; 77: 179-182
        • Brewer V
        • Meyer BM
        • Keele MS
        • Upton SJ
        • Hagan RD
        Role of exercise in prevention of involutional bone loss.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1983; 15: 445-449
        • Doyle F
        • Brown J
        • Lachance C
        Relation between bone mass and muscle weight.
        Lancet. 1970; 1: 391-393
        • Abramson AS
        Bone disturbances in injuries to the spinal cord and cauda equina (paraplegia): their prevention by ambulation.
        J Bone Joint Surg [Am]. 1948; 30: 982-987
        • Smith EL
        Exercise for prevention of osteoporosis: a review.
        Physician Sportsmed. March 1982; 10: 72-83
        • Krølner B
        • Toft B
        • Pors Nielsen S
        • Tøndevold E
        Physical exercise as prophylaxis against involutional vertebral bone loss: a controlled trial.
        Clin Sci. 1983; 64: 541-546
        • Sinaki M
        • Mikkelsen BA
        Postmenopausal spinal osteoporosis: flexion versus extension exercises.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1984; 65: 593-596
        • Krølner B
        • Toft B
        Vertebral bone loss: an unheeded side effect of therapeutic bed rest.
        Clin Sci. 1983; 64: 537-540
        • Talmage RV
        • Stinnett SS
        • Landwehr JT
        • Vincent LM
        • McCartney WH
        Age-related loss of bone mineral density in non-athletic and athletic women.
        Bone Miner. 1986; 1: 115-125
        • Smith DM
        • Khairi MRA
        • Norton J
        • Johnston Jr, CC
        Age and activity effects on rate of bone mineral loss.
        J Clin Invest. 1976; 58: 716-721
        • Abramson AS
        • Delagi EF
        Influence of weight-bearing and muscle contraction on disuse osteoporosis.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1961; 42: 147-151
        • Pocock NA
        • Eisman JA
        • Yeates MG
        • Sambrook PN
        • Eberl S
        Physical fitness is a major determinant of femoral neck and lumbar spine bone mineral density.
        J Clin Invest. 1986; 78: 618-621
        • Chow RK
        • Harrison J
        • Hajek V
        • Dornan J
        A feasibility study: the effect of two randomized exercise programs on bone mass of healthy post menopausal women (abstract).
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1987; 68: 640
        • Smith Jr, EL
        • Reddan W
        • Smith PE
        Physical activity and calcium modalities for bone mineral increase in aged women.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1981; 13: 60-64
        • Korcok M
        Add exercise to calcium in osteoporosis prevention.
        JAMA. 1986; 247 (1112): 1106