Abbreviations and Acronyms:ABI (ankle-brachial index), ACCF (American College of Cardiology Foundation), AHA (American Heart Association), BMI (body mass index), BP (blood pressure), CACS (coronary artery calcium scoring), CAD (coronary artery disease), CCTA (coronary computed tomographic angiography), CIMT (carotid intima-media thickness), CVD (cardiovascular disease), ED (erectile dysfunction), EST (exercise stress testing), FRS (Framingham Risk Score), HDL (high-density lipoprotein), hsCRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), LOE (level of evidence), Mets (metabolic equivalents of the task), MI (myocardial infarction), NYHA (New York Heart Association), PAD (peripheral artery disease), PDE5 (phosphodiesterase type 5), PWV (pulse wave velocity), TRT (testosterone replacement therapy), TT (total testosterone), WC (waist circumference)
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Dr Nehra is now with the Department of Urology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL. Dr Billups is now with the James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD.
Potential Competing Interests: Dr Jackson is a speaker for Pfizer, New York, NY, Eli Lilly & Co, Indianapolis, IN, and Bayer, Leverkusen, Germany. Dr Miner is a consultant to Eli Lilly & Co, Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL, Auxilium Pharmaceuticals Inc, Malvern, PA, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany, and Endo Pharmaceuticals, Chadds Ford, PA, and conducts personal research for GlaxoSmithKline, London, UK, and Auxilium Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Dr Billups is a consultant to Endo Pharmaceuticals and Abbott Laboratories.
Dr Burnett is a consultant to Endo Pharmaceuticals, Abbott Laboratories, Timm Medical Technologies, Eden Prairie, MN, VIVUS Inc, Mountain View, CA, Auxilium Pharmaceuticals Inc, and Shionogi Inc, Florham Park, NJ; has received grant support from Pfizer ; and has participated in clinical trials for VIVUS Inc and Auxilium Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Dr Buvat is a consultant to Eli Lilly & Co and Nextmed, Tucson, AZ.
Dr Carson is a consultant to and a speaker for GlaxoSmithKline, Eli Lilly & Co, Pfizer, and Auxilium Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Dr Cunningham is a consultant to Abbott Laboratories, Endo Pharmaceuticals, and GlaxoSmithKline and is a speaker for Abbott Laboratories, Endo Pharmaceuticals, and Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ.
Dr Ganz is a consultant to Pfizer, Gilead, Forest City, CA, and Roche, Basel, Switzerland.
Dr Goldstein is a consultant to Coloplast, Humlebæk, Denmark, Medtronic Vascular, Fridley, MN, Slate, and VIVUS Inc; a speaker for Abbott Laboratories, Auxilium Pharmaceuticals Inc, Coloplast, Eli Lilly & Co, Endo Pharmaceuticals, Medtronic Vascular, and Slate Pharmaceuticals, Lake Forest, IL, performs personal research for Auxilium Pharmaceuticals Inc, BioSante Pharmaceuticals, Lincolnshire, IL, Medtronic Vascular, Slate, and Target Health, New York, NY; and is an expert witness for Pfizer and Bayer.
Dr Guay is a consultant to Auxilium Pharmaceuticals Inc, Abbott Laboratories, Endo Pharmaceuticals, and Repros Therapeutics, The Woodlands, TX.
Dr Hackett is a speaker and conducts personal research for Bayer and Eli Lilly & Co.
Dr Kloner is a speaker for Pfizer.
Dr Kostis is a consultant to Merck/Schering and Palatin Technologies Inc, Cranbury, NJ; a speaker for Forest Laboratories, New York, NY, Merck, and Sanofi-Aventis; and has received research support from Medtronic and Novartis, Basel, Switzerland.
Dr Rosen is a consultant to Eli Lilly & Co, Boehringer Ingelheim, Palatin Technologies Inc, and Auxilium Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Dr Sadovsky is a consultant to Pfizer, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Eli Lilly & Co.
Dr Seftel is a consultant to Auxilium Pharmaceuticals Inc, Endo Pharmaceuticals, Actient, Abbott Laboratories, Eli Lilly & Co, and Pfizer.
Dr Vlachopoulos is a consultant to Eli Lilly & Co and has received research support from Pfizer.
Dr Wu is a consultant to Eli Lilly & Co, is a speaker for Galapagos NV, Mechelen, Belgiu, and conducts personal research for Bayer.