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Patient Survival and Renal Recovery in Acute Renal Failure: Randomized Comparison of Cellulose Acetate and Polysulfone Membrane Dialyzers

      OBJECTIVE

      To investigate survival and renal recovery after dialysis in patients with acute renal failure with use of synthetic membranes compared with substituted cellulose membranes.

      PATIENTS AND METHODS

      We prospectively studied survival and recovery of renal function of 66 patients with acute renal failure who required intermittent heinodialysis. Patients were randomized to exclusive treatment with either cellulose acetate (CA) or polysulfone (PS) hemodialysis membranes. Additionally, markers of bio compatibility (complement, leukocyte counts, cytokine concentration) were measured at initiation and 1 hour after initiation of dialysis among 10 patients equally distributed between the CA and PS groups .

      RESULTS

      The cohorts were indistinguishable with respect to age, sex, presence of diabetes mellitus, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores, per centage in the intensive care unit (ICU), and adequacy of dialysis. Survival (76% CA, 73% PS; P=.78) and recovery of renal function at 30 days (58% CA, 39% PS; P=.14) were not statistically different in the 2 groups. Among 26 CA patients and 27 PS patients treated in the ICU, survival was not statistically different (73% CA, 67% PS; P=.61); however, the proportion of patients recovering renal function suggested a benefit favoring CA membranes (65% CA, 37% PS; P=.04). Additionally, markers of biocompatibility were not significantly different between groups among the 10 patients equally distributed between the CA and PS groups.

      CONCLUSIONS

      Overall clinical outcomes among patients with acute renal failure treated with CA hemodialysis membranes and those treated with PS membranes were not significantly different. The observed advantage favoring renal recovery among this ICU population treated with CA hemodialysis membranes warrants further investigation.
      AN-69 (acrylonitrile/methallyl sulfonate), APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation), ARF (acute renal failure), CA (cellulose acetate), ICU (intensive care unit), IL (interleukin), KoA (mass transfer coefficient), KuF (ultrafil tration coefficient), PAN (polyacrylonitrile), PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), PS (polysulfone), TNF (tumor necrosis factor)
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