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Symposium on Antimicrobial Agents—Part XVI| Volume 75, ISSUE 1, P86-97, January 2000

Antimicrobial Therapy for Infants and Children: Guidelines for the Inpatient and Outpatient Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases

      In this article, we discuss antimicrobial regimens for both outpatient and inpatient use in infants and children. A substantial number of pediatric patient visits annually result in the prescribing of antimicrobial drugs. The emergence of bacteria resistant to commonly used antimicrobial agents is a growing concern. Information on newer drugs such as meropenem, which is active against penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and gram-negative bacilli, and cefepime, which has activity against gramnegative bacilli including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and against gram-positive cocci is also presented. Management of patients with congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies continues to be challenging in regard to the use of antimicrobial drugs to treat various fungal and viral infections. New formulations of older drugs such as aerosolized tobramycin and amphotericin B lipid complex are available. New antiviral agents have been approved, most of which are antiretroviral agents. Childhood tuberculosis is an ongoing concern, and regimens to treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis in children are discussed.
      FDA (Food and Drug Administration), HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), MICs (minimal inhibitory concentrations), RSV (respiratory syncytial virus), TMP-SMX (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)
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