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Primary Esophageal Motility Disorders

      Esophageal motility disorders often manifest with chest pain and dysphagia. Achalasia is a disorder of the lower esophageal sphincter and the smooth musculature of the esophageal body. In achalasia the lower esophageal sphincter typically fails to relax with swallowing, and the esophageal body fails to undergo peristalsis. In contrast to spastic disorders of the esophagus, achalasia can be progressive and cause pronounced morbidity. Pseudoachalasia mimics achalasia in terms of symptoms but can be caused by infectious disorders or malignancy. Treatment for achalasia is nonstandardized and includes medical, endoscopic, and surgical options. Spastic disorders of the esophagus, such as diffuse esophageal spasm and nutcracker esophagus, and nonspecific esophageal motility disorder are benign and nonprogressive, with similar findings on esophageal manometry. Although the exact cause remains unknown, these disorders may represent a manifestation of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Treatment of spastic disorders includes medical and surgical approaches and is aimed at symptomatic relief.
      DES ( diffuse esophageal spasm), EUS ( endoscopic ultrasonography), GERD ( gastroesophageal reflux disease), LES ( lower esophageal sphincter), NE ( nutcracker esophagus), NSMD ( nonspecific esophageal motility disorder)
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      Questions About Primary Esophageal Motility Disorders

      • 1.
        Which one of the following is not a major or minor diagnostic criteron for NE?
        • a.
          Repetitive contractions
        • b.
          Esophageal peristaltic contraction amplitude greater than 180 mm Hg
        • c.
          LES pressure greater than 40 mm Hg
        • d.
          “Corkscrew” sign on barium swallow
        • e.
          Prolonged contractions
      • 2.
        Which one of the following investigations is not useful in the evaluation of a patient with suspected achalasia?
        • a.
          Upper endoscopy
        • b.
          Esophageal electromyography
        • c.
          Barium swallow
        • d.
          EUS
        • e.
          Esophageal manometry
      • 3.
        Which one of the following illnesses would not result in radiographic changes that mimic primary achalasia?
        • a.
          Esophageal carcinoma
        • b.
          Benign esophageal strictures
        • c.
          Chagas disease
        • d.
          Leiomyomas
        • e.
          Zenker diverticulum
      • 4.
        Which one of the following has been shown to improve symptoms in spastic disorders of the esophagus in a prospective, blinded, controlled study?
        • a.
          Trazodone
        • b.
          Nifedipine
        • c.
          Isosorbide mononitrate
        • d.
          Botulinum toxin
        • e.
          Diltiazem
      • 5.
        Which one of the following is a complication of surgical esophageal myotomy?
        • a.
          Dysphagia with a hypocontractile esophagus
        • b.
          Gastric volvulus
        • c.
          High risk for aspiration pneumonia
        • d.
          Vocal cord atrophy
        • e.
          Cameron lesions

      Correct answers: 1. d, 2. b, 3. e, 4. a, 5. a