Advertisement
Mayo Clinic Proceedings Home

Secondary Causes of Osteoporosis

  • Lorraine A. Fitzpatrick
    Correspondence
    Address reprint requests and correspondence to Lorraine A. Fitzpatrick, MD, Endocrine Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905
    Affiliations
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism, Nutrition and Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn
    Search for articles by this author
      Secondary causes of bone loss are not often considered in patients who are diagnosed as having osteoporosis. In some studies, 20% to 30% of postmenopausal women and more than 50% of men with osteoporosis have a secondary cause. There are numerous causes of secondary bone loss, including adverse effects of drug therapy, endocrine disorders, eating disorders, immobilization, marrow-related disorders, disorders of the gastrointestinal or biliary tract, renal disease, and cancer. Patients who have undergone organ transplantation are also at increased risk for osteoporosis. In many cases, the adverse effects of osteoporosis are reversible with appropriate intervention. Because of the many treatment options that are now available for patients with osteoporosis and the tremendous advances that have been made in understanding the pathogenesis and diagnosis of the condition, it is important that medical disorders are recognized and appropriate interventions are undertaken. This article provides the framework for understanding causes of bone loss and approaches to their management.

      Abbreviations:

      BMD (bone mineral density), CI (confidence interval), IGF (insulin-like growth factor), IL-1 (interleukin 1), PTH (parathyroid hormone), PTHrP (parathyroid hormone—related peptide), RR (relative risk), TNF-a (tumor necrosis factor a), WHO (World Health Organization)
      The past few years have been marked by tremendous advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. Use of smaller devices and faster measurements of bone mass combined with the numerous randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials have provided additional information to support diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for the clinician. Many new treatment options are available for the patient, and some treatment options have been explored in varying combinations.
      Primary osteoporosis is bone loss that occurs during the normal human aging process. Secondary osteoporosis is defined as bone loss that results from specific, well-defined clinical disorders. Many times reversible, secondary causes of bone loss are not considered in a patient with low bone mineral density (BMD). Secondary osteoporosis may be due to a large and diverse group of medical disorders, which includes endocrine disorders, adverse effects of medications, immobilization, disorders of the gastrointestinal or biliary tract, renal disease, and cancer (Table 1). It is important to determine the cause of the bone loss before finalizing decisions regarding treatment.
      Table 1Secondary Causes of Osteoporosis
      • Endocrine disorders
        • Acromegaly
        • Adrenal atrophy in Addison disease
        • Cushing syndrome
        • Eating disorders
        • Endometriosis
        • Gonadal insufficiency (primary or secondary)
        • Hyperparathyroidism
        • Hyperprolactinemia
        • Hyperthyroidism
        • Hypogonadism
        • Type 1 diabetes mellitus
        • Nutritional disorders
        • Tumor secretion of parathyroid hormone–related peptide
      • Gastrointestinal disease
        • Alcohol-related liver diseases
        • Celiac disease
        • Chronic active hepatitis
        • Chronic cholestatic diseases
        • Gastrectomy
        • Inflammatory bowel disease
        • Jejunoileal bypass
        • Malabsorption syndromes
        • Pancreatic insufficiency
        • Parenteral nutrition
        • Primary biliary cirrhosis
        • Severe liver disease
      • Marrow-related disorders
        • Amyloidosis
        • Hemochromatosis
        • Hemophilia
        • Leukemia
        • Lymphoma
        • Mastocytosis
        • Multiple myeloma
        • Pernicious anemia
        • Sarcoidosis
        • Sickle cell anemia
        • Thalassemia
      • Organ transplantation
        • Bone marrow
        • Heart
        • Kidney
        • Liver
        • Lung
      • Miscellaneous causes
        • Ankylosing spondylitis
        • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
        • Congenital porphyria
        • Epidermolysis bullosa
        • Hemophilia
        • Idiopathic hypercalciuria
        • Idiopathic scoliosis
        • Multiple sclerosis
        • Rheumatoid arthritis
      • Genetic disorders
        • Hypophosphatasia
        • Osteogenesis imperfecta

      ESTIMATES OF THE INCIDENCE OF SECONDARY OSTEOPOROSIS

      One of the challenges encountered in the discussion of secondary osteoporosis is understanding the problems of the disorder in the general population. Cost concerns have limited use of thorough work-ups to rule out all possible secondary causes, or studies may reflect experiences from subspecialty clinics or tertiary medical care centers where inherent bias may be present.
      A small proportion of women with low trauma fractures have osteomalacia, and in men with femoral fractures, osteomalacia is present in 4% to 47%, with most studies
      • Orwoll ES
      Osteoporosis in men.
      reporting a rate of close to 20%. It is not known whether populations with other fractures, such as vertebral fractures, or those without fractures have similar proportions of osteoporosis and osteomalacia. Since the treatment of osteomalacia is different from that of osteoporosis, this is an important distinction to make for optimal patient treatment. In a retrospective study
      • Haden ST
      • Fuleihan GE
      • Angell JE
      • Cotran NM
      • LeBoff MS
      Calcidiol and PTH levels in women attending an osteoporosis program.
      of 237 patients who attended a specialty osteoporosis practice, secondary causes for reduced BMD were evaluated in 196 postmenopausal women and 41 premenopausal women. Sixteen percent of these patients had 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of less than 15 ng/mL, the lowest acceptable level without a concomitant rise in immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. By using the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of osteopenia based on T score (-1.0 to −2.5), 11% of osteopenic patients had 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of less than 15 ng/mL. This finding suggests that if BMD is used as a criterion to define which patients undergo additional evaluation, then a significant portion of osteopenic (not osteoporotic) patients with vitamin D deficiency, one of the secondary causes for low BMD, would be missed.
      In a separate study
      • Peris P
      • Guanabens N
      • Monegal A
      • et al.
      Aetiology and presenting symptoms in male osteoporosis.
      in an outpatient rheumatology department, causes of osteoporosis in 81 osteoporotic men were evaluated, and 63 men (78%) had secondary osteoporosis. However, the 22% of patients who were diagnosed as having primary osteoporosis included 8 of the 18 patients with hypercalciuria, the reason for which was not clear. In men with vertebral crush fractures, some investigators
      • Scane AC
      • Sutcliffe AM
      • Francis RM
      Osteoporosis in men.
      have suggested that 55% of men have a secondary cause of osteoporosis and 20% of these cases are due to hypogonadism.
      In a series of 214 women with vertebral crush fractures,
      • Caplan GA
      • Scane AC
      • Francis RM
      Pathogenesis of vertebral crush fractures in women.
      30.4% were found to have an underlying cause of osteoporosis or early menopause (36.4%) before the age of 45 years. Other estimates of osteoporosis in women suggested that approximately 20% of women who appear to have postmenopausal osteoporosis have an identifiable secondary cause, whereas the incidence of men with a secondary cause has been estimated to be as high as 64%.
      • Kelepouris N
      • Harper KD
      • Gannon F
      • Kaplan FS
      • Haddad JG
      Severe osteoporosis in men.

      SECONDARY OSTEOPOROSIS ASSOCIATED WITH DRUG THERAPY

       Glucocorticoids

      Decalcification of the skeleton was recognized as a clinical feature of Cushing disease as early as 1932. Glucocorticoid excess results in diffuse bone loss and may affect trabecular bone more than cortical bone. Bone loss is due to suppression of osteoblast function, inhibition of intestinal calcium absorption leading to secondary hyperparathyroidism, and increased osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Bone loss is also promoted by direct stimulation of renal excretion of calcium by glucocorticoids. Hypogonadism may occur with the suppressive effects of glucocorticoids on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.
      Bone density is reduced in 40% to 60% of patients with an endogenous glucocorticoid excess, and pathologic fractures have been observed in 16% to 67%. Rib and vertebral fractures are the most common, but the risk of hip fractures is doubled in glucocorticoid-treated patients.
      • Van Staa TP
      • Leufkens HG
      • Abenhaim L
      • Zhang B
      • Cooper C
      Use of oral corticosteroids and risk of fractures.
      Short-term studies have indicated that glucocorticoid-induced bone loss appears greater in the first 6 to 12 months of therapy, and some studies
      • Canalis E
      • Giustina A
      Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: summary of a workshop.
      • Reid IR
      Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.
      have documented a 20% to 30% loss of trabecular bone within the first year of glucocorticoid use. The minimum dose of glucocorticoids associated with rapid bone loss is not established, but some studies
      • Van Staa TP
      • Leufkens HG
      • Abenhaim L
      • Zhang B
      • Cooper C
      Use of oral corticosteroids and risk of fractures.
      • McKenzie R
      • Reynolds JC
      • O'Fallon A
      • et al.
      Decreased bone mineral density during low dose glucocorticoid administration in a randomized, placebo controlled trial.
      indicate that as little as 2.5 mg/d of prednisone produces considerable bone loss. Recently, inhaled glucocorticoid therapy was associated with a dose-related decrease in BMD at the total hip and trochanter (0.00044 g/cm2 per puff per year of treatment).
      • Israel E
      • Banerjee TR
      • Fitzmaurice GM
      • et al.
      Effects of inhaled glucocorticoids on bone density in premenopausal women.
      This finding, along with a retrospective study
      • Van Staa TP
      • Leufkens HG
      • Abenhaim L
      • Zhang B
      • Cooper C
      Use of oral corticosteroids and risk of fractures.
      that indicated 2.5 mg of prednisone is associated with bone loss, suggests a lower threshold at which glucocorticoids cause skeletal harm. Fracture risk increases with dose and duration of glucocorticoid use. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is more severe in patients younger than 15 years, those older than 50 years, postmenopausal women, and patients with low body weight.
      • Michel GA
      • Bloch DA
      • Wolfe F
      • Fried JF
      Fractures in rheumatoid arthritis: an evaluation of associated risk factors.
      The effects of glucocorticoids on bone and mineral metabolism lead to rapid acceleration of bone loss. Although physiologic concentrations of glucocorticoids enhance the function of osteoblasts, prolonged exposure to superphysiologic doses inhibits collagen synthesis and differentiation of osteoblasts, reducing bone formation. In the osteoclast, physiologic concentrations of glucocorticoids enhance late stages of differentiation and function. In the presence of high doses of glucocorticoids or prolonged exposure, apoptosis of new osteoclasts occurs. The effect of glucocorticoids on bone resorption may also be mediated in part by secondary hyperparathyroidism. The long-term increase in PTH levels enhances osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, resulting in bone loss. Other effects of glucocorticoids include alterations in the production of prostaglandins, cytokines, and growth factors. Glucocorticoids inhibit the production of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2, which normally stimulate collagen and noncollagenous protein synthesis.
      • Centrella M
      • Casinghino S
      • McCarthy TL
      Differential actions of prostaglandins in separate cell populations from fetal rat bone.
      Glucocorticoids decrease cell replication, and collagen synthesis is partially reversed by pros- taglandin E2, so this inhibition results in decreased bone formation.
      • Raisz LG
      • Koolemans-Beynen AR
      Inhibition of bone collagen synthesis by prostaglandin E2 in organ culture.
      Pharmacologic concentrations of glucocorticoids inhibit the synthesis of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1.
      • Centrella M
      • Casinghino S
      • McCarthy TL
      Differential actions of prostaglandins in separate cell populations from fetal rat bone.
      • McCarthy TL
      • Ji C
      • Casinghino S
      • Centrella M
      Alternate signaling pathways selectively regulate binding of insulin-like growth factor I and II on fetal rat bone cells.
      Synthesized by bone cells, IGF-1 stimulates bone cell replication and collagen synthesis. Glucocorticoids can also affect IGF-binding proteins, which inhibit or enhance IGF activity. The composite effect of glucocorticoids to decrease IGF-binding protein 5 (which has an anabolic effect of the IGF system) and to decrease IGF- binding protein 3 and IGF-binding protein 4 (which inhibit anabolic effects) may have an overall effect to reduce bone formation.
      • Conover CA
      In vitro studies of insulin-like growth factor I and bone.
      In glucocorticoid-treated patients, a marked increase in osteoblast (30%) and osteocyte (5%) apoptosis was noted.
      • Weinstein RS
      • Jilka RL
      • Parfitt AM
      • Manolagas SC
      Inhibition of osteoblastogenesis and promotion of apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes by glucocorticoids: potential mechanisms of their deleterious effects on bone.
      In ex vivo marrow cultures from mice, glucocorticoids inhibited proliferation and/or differentiation of the stromal cell-osteoblast precursors at an early stage, reducing the number of mature, matrix-forming osteoblasts.
      • Weinstein RS
      • Jilka RL
      • Parfitt AM
      • Manolagas SC
      Inhibition of osteoblastogenesis and promotion of apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes by glucocorticoids: potential mechanisms of their deleterious effects on bone.
      Serum and urine biochemical indices in patients with glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia are generally normal. Urinary markers of bone resorption may be elevated. Serum immunoreactive PTH levels may be normal or mildly elevated (secondary hyperparathyroidism). Serum alkaline phosphatase (bone fraction) activity and osteocalcin levels decline steadily after the initiation of glucocorticoid therapy, reflecting inhibition of osteoblast activity. Urinary calcium excretion may be increased during the first several months to years of steroid therapy because of the direct calciuric effect of glucocorticoids on the kidney. (For a comprehensive review of this subject, see the article by Manelli and Giustina.
      • Manelli F
      • Giustina A
      Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.
      )
      Aseptic or avascular necrosis (osteonecrosis) is a serious complication of glucocorticoid therapy and occurs in 4% to 25% of patients. The most frequently affected areas are the head of the humerus and distal femur. Several theories are proposed for the cause of osteonecrosis, which include ischemia caused by microscopic fat emboli, mechanical problems due to ischemic collapse of the epiphyses due to osteoporosis and fatigue fractures, or increased interosseous pressure due to the fat accumulation as part of Cushing syndrome, leading to mechanical impingement and decreased blood flow. The most recent hypothesis suggests that glucocorticoids enhance osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis. In the study by Weinstein et al,
      • Weinstein RS
      • Nicholas RW
      • Manolagas SC
      Apoptosis of osteocytes in glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of the hip.
      evaluation of the femoral head of glucocorticoid-treated patients who underwent prosthetic hip replacement revealed apoptotic osteocytes and apoptotic cells lining the cancellous bone juxtaposed to the subchondral fracture crescent.

       Management of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis

      The first principle in the treatment of patients with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is use of the lowest effective dose of glucocorticoid with the shortest half-life. Awareness of potential problems can prevent and reverse the bone loss to some degree. Anyone taking glucocorticoids for more than 2 months should be considered at risk. General health measures that are applicable to patients with osteoporosis should be encouraged, such as weight-bearing exercise and good nutritional status. To prevent secondary hyperparathyroidism, a calcium intake of 1500 mg/d is usually recommended. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels should be maintained at the upper limits of normal, and even small degrees of vitamin D insufficiency should be treated and monitored. The American College of Rheumatology
      • American College of Rheumatology Ad Hoc Committee on Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis
      Recommendations for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: 2001 update.
      published the guideline of 800 IU/d of cholecalciferol in patients receiving 5 mg/d or more of prednisone. The secondary hyperparathyroidism due to hypercalciuria can be managed with a thiazide diuretic, and often small doses (12.5–25 mg/d) can significantly reduce urinary calcium loss.
      • Lukert BP
      Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.
      Gonadal hormones should be assessed and replaced. Estrogen and/or progesterone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women or women with irregular menses should be initiated. Men with low testosterone levels should have adequate replacement of testosterone. If the patient is unable to take gonadal hormones and is osteopenic, bisphosphonate therapy should be initiated. Etidronate, alendronate, pamidronate, and risedronate have all been shown to prevent bone loss in patients taking glucocorticoids.
      • Gonnelli S
      • Rottoli P
      • Cepollaro C
      • et al.
      Prevention of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis with alendronate in sarcoid patients.
      • Adachi JD
      • Bensen WG
      • Brown J
      • et al.
      Intermittent etidronate therapy to prevent corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis.
      • Reid IR
      • King AR
      • Alexander CJ
      • Ibbertson HK
      Prevention of steroid-induced osteoporosis with (3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene)-1, 1-bisphosphonate (APD).
      • Adachi JD
      • Saag KG
      • Delmas PD
      • et al.
      Two-year effects of alendronate on bone mineral density and vertebral fracture in patients receiving glucocorticoids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled extension trial.
      • Cohen S
      • Levy RM
      • Keller M
      • et al.
      Risedronate therapy prevents corticosteroid-induced bone loss: a twelve-month, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study.
      However, alendronate and risedronate have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and are the bisphosphonates commonly used in this setting. Patients should be monitored frequently. Bone density should be measured every 6 months for the first 2 years of therapy. If bone loss continues, then aggressive treatment with combination therapies is warranted.

       Anticonvulsant Medications

      Bone disease associated with anticonvulsant therapy is a form of osteomalacia. In this condition, high-turnover osteoporosis is often present. In the florid form of osteoporosis, bone changes, such as osteopenia and fractures, are associated with hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and muscle weakness. Rickets has been observed in children taking anticonvulsant medication. Early reports
      • Dent CE
      • Richens A
      • Rowe DJ
      • Stamp TC
      Osteomalacia with long-term anticonvulsant therapy in epilepsy.
      • Hunter J
      • Maxwell JD
      • Stewart DA
      • Parsons V
      • Williams R
      Altered calcium metabolism in epileptic children on anticonvulsants.
      suggest that a large number of patients with epilepsy receiving anticonvulsants develop signs of rickets or osteomalacia, particularly if they are institutionalized. In these reports, rates were as high as 20% to 65%, and patients were at particularly increased risk for fracture during seizures. In the outpatient setting, abnormalities on bone biopsy specimens, such as increased osteoid, are observed in 10% to 40% of patients receiving long-term anticonvulsant therapy.
      • Pylypchuk G
      • Oreopoulos DG
      • Wilson DR
      • et al.
      Calcium metabolism in adult outpatients with epilepsy receiving long-term anticonvulsant therapy.
      • Ashworth B
      • Horn DB
      Evidence of osteomalacia in an outpatient group of adult epileptics.
      In the outpatient setting, biochemical abnormalities, such as reduced serum and urine calcium levels, reduced serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, and elevated serum PTH and alkaline phosphatase levels, are often noted.
      The mechanism by which anticonvulsants induce bone disease is thought to be drug metabolism by the liver. Phenobarbital, diphenylhydantoin, and carbamazepine, 3 of the most commonly used anticonvulsants, increase the metabolism and clearance of vitamin D.
      • Matheson RT
      • Herbst JJ
      • Jubiz W
      • Freston JW
      • Tolman KG
      Absorption and biotransformation of cholecalciferol in drug-induced osteomalacia.
      • Hahn TJ
      • Birge SJ
      • Scharp CR
      • Avioli LV
      Phenobarbital-induced alterations in vitamin D metabolism.
      Anticonvulsants such as sodium valproate have little or no impact on serum calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels because they do not induce hepatic drug metabolites and enzymes.
      • Gough H
      • Goggin T
      • Bissessar A
      • et al.
      A comparative study of the relative influence of different anticonvulsant drugs, UV exposure and diet on vitamin D and calcium metabolism in out-patients with epilepsy.
      If the patient is well nourished and exposed to adequate amounts of sunlight, clinically significant bone disease is less likely to occur as a result of anticonvulsant therapy. In general, recommendations include higher intakes of cholecalciferol (400–800 IU/d), with doses up to 4000 IU/d sometimes needed to achieve normal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.

       Miscellaneous Medications Associated With Osteoporosis

      Other medications have been associated with the development of osteoporosis (Table 2). Methotrexate has been implicated as a cause of bone loss, but in most studies, other drugs have been administered or the gonadal status of the patients has been altered, making definitive conclusions difficult. The administration of excessive exogenous thyroid hormone has been associated with osteopenia. Clinical relevance of osteoporosis associated with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism has been examined in terms of development of fractures, but the data remain controversial. Heparin has been implicated in the suppression of bone formation. Bile acid binding resins, such as cholestyramine and colestipol, have the potential to interfere with vitamin D absorption. Aluminum is a well-known inhibitor of bone mineralization and phosphate absorption. Aluminum-induced osteomalacia can be present in patients who are undergoing hemodialysis or taking total parenteral nutrition. Antacids are used to control serum phosphate levels in patients with renal failure, and aluminum contamination of various components can occur during total parenteral nutrition. In patients with aluminum-induced osteomalacia, normal or even high serum phosphate levels and low 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D levels occur.
      • Bikle DD
      Drug-induced osteomalacia.
      Patients with renal failure may have a lower-than-expected PTH level and become hypercalcemic at low doses of calcitriol.
      • Bikle DD
      Drug-induced osteomalacia.
      Reduction of aluminum exposure of these patients has reduced the incidence of aluminum-induced osteomalacia. Deferoxamine is used to reduce the body load of aluminum and reduce osteomalacia.
      • Felsenfeld AJ
      • Rodriguez M
      • Coleman M
      • Ross D
      • Llach F
      Desferrioxamine therapy in hemodialysis patients with aluminum-associated bone disease.
      Table 2Drugs Associated With Bone Loss
      • Aluminum
      • Anticoagulants
      • Anticonvulsants
      • Cigarette smoking
      • Cytotoxic drugs
      • Excessive alcohol
      • Excessive vitamin A
      • Glucocorticoids and adrenocorticotropin
      • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists
      • Heparin
      • Lithium
      • Tamoxifen (in the premenopausal patient) Beta carotene
      • ? Bile-acid binding resins

       ENDOCRINE DISORDERS ASSOCIATED WITH SECONDARY OSTEOPOROSIS Hyperthyroidism

      Both thyroid insufficiency and excess lead to alterations in bone mass. Thyroid hormone increases the creation of new bone remodeling units with an enhancement of remodeling activity. Thyroid hormones directly stimulate production of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and IGFs. In patients with thyrotoxicosis, increased serum levels of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase may be seen. Despite the increase in osteoblast activity, there are also thyroid hormone-induced increases in bone resorption. The bone resorption is associated with increased levels of hydroxyproline and collagen cross-links in thyrotoxic patients. The overall increase in bone turnover in the presence of excessive levels of thyroid hormone is characterized by an increase in the number of osteoclasts, the number of resorption sites, and the ratio of resorptive to formative surfaces. In the thyrotoxic patient, the bone remodeling cycle is shortened because of a decrease in the length of the bone formation and, overall, there is failure to replace resorbed bone completely, leading to bone loss.
      • Mosekilde L
      • Eriksen EF
      • Charles P
      Effects of thyroid hormone on bone and mineral metabolism.
      In patients with thyrotoxicosis, BMD is reduced.
      • Rosen CJ
      • Alder RA
      Longitudinal changes in lumbar bone density among thyrotoxic patients after attainment of euthyroidism.
      Several studies
      • Cummings SR
      • Nevitt MC
      • Browner WS
      • et al.
      Risk factors for hip fracture in white women: study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group.
      have indicated that individuals with a history of thyrotoxicosis have an increased risk of fracture and may sustain fracture at an earlier age compared with patients who have never had an increase in thyroid hormone levels. After effective treatment of the thyrotoxic patient, the decrease in bone density may be reversible. Normalization of the results of thyroid function tests results in increases in bone density compared with pretreatment values.
      • Rosen CJ
      • Alder RA
      Longitudinal changes in lumbar bone density among thyrotoxic patients after attainment of euthyroidism.
      Concerns about the effects of administration of high doses of thyroid hormone to suppress thyrotropin secretion in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer or nontoxic goiter have led to several studies in bone metabolism.
      • Obermayer-Pietsch B
      • Dobnig H
      • Warnkross H
      • et al.
      Variable bone mass recovery in hyperthyroid bone disease after radioiodine therapy in postmenopausal patients.
      It is thought that in patients who have risk factors for osteoporosis, this type of therapy may aggravate fracture risk. There have been controversial studies regarding whether thyrotropin-suppressive doses of thyroid hormone will decrease or have no effect on BMD in women. In 1 metaanalysis,
      • Faber J
      • Galloe AM
      Changes in bone mass during prolonged subclinical hyperthyroidism due to L-thyroxine treatment: a meta-analysis.
      BMD was assessed in women receiving thyrotropin-suppressive doses of thyroxin. The study concluded that there was a 1% increase in annual bone loss in postmenopausal women. Only 1 large prospective study, the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures,
      • Cummings SR
      • Nevitt MC
      • Browner WS
      • et al.
      Risk factors for hip fracture in white women: study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group.
      examined the relationship between thyroid disease and fractures. In this study, postmenopausal women with a history of hyperthyroidism had an 80% increase in the risk of subsequent hip fracture. Thyroid hormone use itself was associated with a 60% increase in risk. Unfortunately, this study did not include measurements of thyroid function. Because there are no published prospective studies of the relationship between thyroid function assessed by measurements of thyrotropin levels and subsequent fracture, debate continues about the appropriate levels that may result in an increased risk for an individual patient.
      One recently published study
      • Obermayer-Pietsch BM
      • Fruhauf GE
      • Chararas K
      • et al.
      Association of the vitamin D receptor genotype BB with low bone density in hyperthyroidism.
      evaluated the influence of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms on BMD in patients with hyperthyroidism in an attempt to define a genetically programmed high-risk group. The cumulative risk for low BMD in patients with hyperthyroidism and the BB genotype was 31.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9-256). The authors suggest there may be a synergy for the development of low BMD in hyperthyroid patients with the BB vitamin D receptor phenotype.

       Primary Hyperparathyroidism

      Parathyroid hormone is responsible for maintaining calcium homeostasis through its action on target cells in the bone and kidney. Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common disorder, with an incidence of 1 in 500 to 1 in 1000, and is usually asymptomatic.
      • Bilezikian JP
      • Silverberg SJ
      Clinical spectrum of primary hyperparathyroidism.
      Classically, primary hyperparathyroidism is associated with specific skeletal disorders. These disorders include osteitis fibrosa cystica in which subperiosteal resorption of the distal phalanges, tapering of the distal clavicles, a “salt and pepper” appearance of the skull, brown tumors, and bone cysts of the long bones occur. With screening of the patients for asymptomatic hypercalcemia, the incidence of bone disease of this type is rare. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are also recognized as bone diseases associated with excess PTH.
      The pathophysiology of primary hyperparathyroidism relates to the loss of normal feedback control of PTH by extracellular calcium. The parathyroid cell loses its normal sensitivity to calcium, and this is the major mechanism in parathyroid adenomas. In primary hyperparathyroidism due to hyperplasia, the set point for calcium is not changed for a given parathyroid cell, but an increased number of cells gives rise to hypercalcemia. The increase in circulating levels of PTH in primary hyperparathyroidism is associated with increased bone turnover. There is an increase in both osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast activity. Overall, there is loss in both cortical and cancellous bone. In mild hyperparathyroidism, however, BMD may be increased in areas that are primarily cancellous, whereas bone is lost in the cortical areas.
      • Dempster DW
      • Parisien M
      • Silverberg SJ
      • et al.
      On the mechanism of cancellous bone preservation in postmenopausal women with mild primary hyperparathyroidism.
      This anabolic effect is the basis for intermittent administration of PTH as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis, because bone formation occurs at a more rapid rate than bone resorption.
      • Rosen CJ
      • Rackoff PJ
      Emerging anabolic treatment for osteoporosis.
      • Neer RM
      • Arnaud CD
      • Zanchetta JR
      • et al.
      Effect of parathyroid hormone (1-34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
      In addition, PTH has clear-cut effects on osteoclast differentiation. The effects of PTH on osteoclast differentiation are mediated through the osteoblast or stromal cell component in the cell culture system.
      • Udagawa N
      • Takahashi N
      • Jimi E
      • et al.
      Osteoblasts/stromal cells stimulate osteoclast activation through expression of osteoclast differentiation factor/RANKL but not macrophage colony-stimulating factor: receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand.
      Bone resorption is enhanced by sustained levels of PTH.
      Bone density has been measured at 3 sites to evaluate areas rich in cortical bone, cancellous bone, and a mixture of both. At the distal radius, an area rich in cortical bone, bone density was less than 80% of age- and sex-matched control values in a cohort of patients with primary hyper- parathyroidism. In contrast, at the lumbar spine, which reflects cancellous bone, BMD was relatively well preserved. The values for the hip region, which is made of mixed cancellous and cortical bone, were midway between the data obtained for the spine and the distal radius.
      • Silverberg SJ
      • Shane E
      • Jacobs TP
      • Siris E
      • Bilezikian JP
      A 10-year prospective study of primary hyperparathyroidism with or without parathyroid surgery [published correction appears in N Engl J Med. 2000;342:144].
      This finding is consistent with the observation that PTH mobilizes calcium from cortical sites before it has a negative impact on cancellous skeleton. Quantitative histomorphometric analysis of bone biopsy specimens is consistent with the loss of cortical bone and preservation of cancellous bone.
      • Dempster DW
      • Parisien M
      • Silverberg SJ
      • et al.
      On the mechanism of cancellous bone preservation in postmenopausal women with mild primary hyperparathyroidism.
      The static parameters of bone, such as osteoid surface, osteoid volume, and eroded surfaces, are elevated in women with primary hyperparathyroidism, consistent with an increased bone turnover. The dynamic parameters (mineralizing surface and bone formation rate) are also elevated. Cortical thinning is noted on biopsy specimens, and PTH levels correlate with cortical porosity.
      • Parisien MV
      • Silverberg SJ
      • Shane E
      • et al.
      The histomorphometry of bone in primary hyperparathyroidism: preservation of cancellous bone structure.
      After surgical cure of primary hyperparathyroidism, BMD increases in both the forearm and lumbar spine. In a longitudinal cohort of patients with primary hyperparathy- roidism followed up for 10 years,
      • Silverberg SJ
      • Shane E
      • Jacobs TP
      • Siris E
      • Bilezikian JP
      A 10-year prospective study of primary hyperparathyroidism with or without parathyroid surgery [published correction appears in N Engl J Med. 2000;342:144].
      parathyroidectomy resulted in normalization of biochemical values and increased BMD. The increase in bone density was prompt and sustained, but a trend toward further increase after 1 year was significant only for femoral neck values. In a subset of patients who did not undergo surgery, there was no progression of bone disease if they were asymptomatic, but one quarter had some progression with bone loss.
      Several studies have assessed the risk of fracture in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. In a population-based study
      • Khosla S
      • Melton III, LJ
      • Wermers RA
      • Crowson CS
      • O'Fallon W
      • Riggs B
      Primary hyperparathyroidism and the risk of fracture: a population-based study.
      of 407 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in Rochester, Minn, there was an increased incidence of vertebral, Colles, rib, and pelvic fractures. In this study, the fracture incidence at each site was compared with the number expected from sex- and age-specific fracture incidence rates for the general population. The community of patients in this cohort had mild hyperparathy- roidism, with a mean (±SD) serum calcium level of 10.9±0.6 mg/dL. The increased risks of fracture were 3.2 (95% CI, 2.5-4.0) for vertebral fracture, 2.2 (95% CI, 1.6-2.9) for forearm fracture, 2.7 (95% CI, 2.1-3.5) for rib fracture, and 2.1 (95% CI, 1.1-3.5) for pelvic fracture. By multivariate analysis, age and female sex remained significant independent predictors of fracture risk. Unfortunately, this set of patients was not characterized regarding BMD.
      A recently published study
      • Vestergaard P
      • Mollerup CL
      • Frokjaer VG
      • Christiansen P
      • Blichert-Toft M
      • Mosekilde L
      Cohort study of risk of fracture before and after surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism.
      evaluated 674 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism at 3 Danish university hospitals. These individuals were matched for age and sex to a national patient register. There was an increased relative risk (RR) of fractures in the hyperparathyroidism cohort compared with controls (RR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.3) before surgery. After surgery, the RR was 1.0. The risks for fracture were increased for the vertebrae (RR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.3-9.7), the distal part of the lower leg and ankle (RR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.3), and the nondistal part of the forearm (RR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.5-10.6) before surgery, but these increases were not seen after surgery. The risk increased in patients 5 to 10 years before surgery. There may have been some selection bias in this study, but the increased rates of fracture are consistent with several other published studies.
      • Khosla S
      • Melton III, LJ
      • Wermers RA
      • Crowson CS
      • O'Fallon W
      • Riggs B
      Primary hyperparathyroidism and the risk of fracture: a population-based study.
      • Melton III, LJ
      • Atkinson EJ
      • O'Fallon WM
      • Heath III, H
      Risk of age-related fractures in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
      • Larsson K
      • Lindh E
      • Lind L
      • Persson I
      • Ljunghall S
      Increased fracture risk in hypercalcemia: bone mineral content measured in hyperparathyroidism.
      • Mori S
      • Shiraki M
      • Fujimaki H
      • Ito H
      Bone fracture in elderly female with primary hyperparathyroidism: relationship among renal function, vitamin D status and fracture risk.

       Acromegaly

      Elevated concentration of growth hormone causes acceleration of bone turnover with an increase in osteoblast and osteoclast activity. In patients with acromegaly, the frequency of osteoporosis or fractures does not appear to be increased. However, in some studies,
      • Lesse GP
      • Fraser WD
      • Farquharson R
      • Hipkin L
      • Vora JP
      Gonadal status is an important determinant of bone density in acromegaly.
      • Lund B
      • Eskildsen PC
      • Norman AW
      • Sorensen OH
      Calcium and vitamin D metabolism in acromegaly.
      bone mass has proved to be increased, and elevated 1,25 hydroxyvitamin D levels have been noted. When osteoporosis occurs in acromegaly, the bone in this setting is of unusual architecture and composition. There is usually a very low trabecular bone volume similar to postmenopausal osteoporotic patients, whereas cortical bone is less altered.
      • Jockenhovel F
      • Rohrbach S
      • Deggerich S
      • Reinwein D
      • Reiners C
      Differential presentation of cortical and trabecular peripheral bone mineral density in acromegaly.
      Growth hormone can increase tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) secretion by mononuclear cells, and these cytokines have been implicated in post- menopausal osteoporosis. In a study
      • Longobardi S
      • Di Somma C
      • Di Rella F
      • et al.
      Bone mineral density and circulating cytokines in patients with acromegaly.
      of 11 patients with active acromegaly, BMD was significantly reduced at the lumbar spine but not at the femoral neck compared with that in sex-, weight-, and age-matched controls. However, circulating levels of IL-1 and TNF-a were the same in acromegalic patients and controls. In acromegaly, the pituitary disease or its treatment may cause hypogonadism, resulting in bone loss.

       Cushing Syndrome or Disease

      Hypercortisolism is a well-recognized risk factor for the development of osteoporosis (see “Glucocorticoids” section). This occurs in exogenous or iatrogenic hypercortisolism, and trabecular bone tends to be lost in preference to cortical bone. If excess cortisol is cured surgically, some of the bone loss is reversible. In a small study
      • Pocock NA
      • Eisman JA
      • Dunstan CR
      • Evans RA
      • Thomas DH
      • Huq NL
      Recovery from steroid-induced osteoporosis.
      of 2 patients, BMD improved as much as 20%. In a clinical trial,
      • Di Somma C
      • Colao A
      • Pivonello R
      • et al.
      Effectiveness of chronic treatment with alendronate in the osteoporosis of Cushing's disease.
      alendronate, which is used for treatment of gluco- corticoid-induced osteoporosis, was given to a group of 39 patients with Cushing disease who were treated with keto- conazole. In this study, BMD was significantly increased at the lumbar spine and femoral neck after 1 year of treatment with the bisphosphonate.

       Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

      Low BMD is associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. No increase in the incidence of fracture in diabetic patients compared with a nondiabetic population has been noted, but the incidence of stress fractures in foot bones is higher in diabetic patients than in nondiabetic patients. Bone formation rates are low in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and the reduction in bone turnover rates may cause the bone to be more fragile, resulting in the risk of fracture in a subset of patients.
      • Reddy GK
      • Stehno-Bittel L
      • Hamade S
      • Enwemeka CS
      The biomechanical integrity of bone in experimental diabetes.
      • Leidig-Bruckner G
      • Ziegler R
      Diabetes mellitus a risk for osteoporosis?.
      Although these aberrations are fairly well documented, the mechanism of bone loss in diabetic patients remains controversial. In a study
      • Jehle PM
      • Jehle DR
      • Mohan S
      • Bohm BO
      Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor system components and relationship to bone metabolism in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.
      of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes compared with control subjects, patients with type 1 diabetes had lower BMD at the spine and hip, reaching statistical significance in the female subgroup. Patients with type 1 diabetes had lower IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein 3 levels, and IGF-binding protein 1 and IGF-binding protein 4 correlated negatively with BMD of the hip. In the patients with type 2 diabetes in whom immunoreactive proinsulin was detected, proinsulin levels correlated with BMD of the hip. The investigators suggest that abnormalities in the IGF system and the lack of endogenous proinsulin contribute to the lower BMD levels in patients with type 1 diabetes.
      • Jehle PM
      • Jehle DR
      • Mohan S
      • Bohm BO
      Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor system components and relationship to bone metabolism in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

       Hyperprolactinemia

      Hyperprolactinemia occurs in physiologic conditions such as pregnancy and lactation and also occurs secondary to pituitary or hypothalamic diseases. High levels of prolactin inhibit gonadotrophic-releasing hormone, resulting in hypo- gonadotrophic hypogonadism. It has been estimated that as many as 25% to 30% of premenopausal women with amenorrhea may have hyperprolactinemia.
      • Luciano AA
      Clinical presentation of hyperprolactinemia.
      • Crosignani PG
      • Vegetti W
      A practical guide to the diagnosis and management of amenorrhea.
      Hyperprolactinemia is associated with reduced bone mass.
      • Biller BM
      • Baum HB
      • Rosenthal DI
      • Saxe VC
      • Charpie PM
      • Klibanski A
      Progressive trabecular osteopenia in women with hyperprolactinemic amenorrhea.
      Both men and women with a history of prolactinemia and hypogonadism for more than 10 years have lower BMD values than patients who were recently diagnosed as having these conditions. This finding suggests that the severity of bone loss in patients with hypoprolactinemia is related to the presence and duration of hypogonadism.
      One factor that may be responsible is a potent stimulator of bone resorption, PTH-related peptide (PTHrP). In patients with hyperprolactinemia, higher levels of PTHrP are noted compared with sex- and age-matched controls.
      • Kovacs CS
      • Chik CL
      Hyperprolactinemia caused by lactation and pituitary adenomas is associated with altered serum calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and PTH-related peptide levels.
      These levels are negatively correlated with BMD z scores in these patients.
      • Stiegler C
      • Leb G
      • Kleinert R
      • et al.
      Plasma levels of parathyroid hormone-related peptide are elevated in hyperprolactinemia and correlated to bone density status.
      Patients with higher PTHrP levels have significantly higher mean serum calcium, total alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin levels. Few studies have looked at biochemical markers of bone remodeling in patients with hyperprolactinemia. Total alkaline phosphatase levels have been reported to be normal. However, osteocalcin levels were low and returned to normal after therapy with dopamine agonists.
      • Shaarawy M
      • El-Dawakhly AS
      • Mosaad M
      • El-Sadek MM
      Biomarkers of bone turnover and bone mineral density in hyperprolactinemic amenorrheic women.
      • Di Somma C
      • Colao A
      • Di Sarno A
      • et al.
      Bone marker and bone density responses to dopamine agonist therapy in hyperprolactinemic males.
      Urinary N-telopeptide levels are increased and also returned to normal values after treatment with dopamine agonists, suggesting that increased resorption is the major pathologic finding in hyperprolactinemia.

      MISCELLANEOUS CAUSES OF SECONDARY OSTEOPOROSIS Eating Disorders

      Anorexia nervosa and bulimia affect 5% to 10% of women.
      • Nielsen S
      Epidemiology and mortality of eating disorders.
      Onset may be at any time from adolescence through the fourth decade of life. These eating disorders are resistant to treatment and chronic in nature, which results in significant morbidity and mortality.
      Anorexia nervosa has been associated with osteoporosis. There are several metabolic disorders associated with anorexia nervosa that may adversely affect the skeleton. These include estrogen deficiency, endogenous cortisol excess, reduced IGF-1 levels, protein-energy malnutrition, and secondary hyperparathyroidism due to low dietary calcium intake or vitamin D deficiency. It has been estimated that 50% of anorexic patients have bone density values of the lumbar spine that are more than 2 SDs below those of age-matched, healthy controls.
      • Biller BM
      • Saxe V
      • Herzog DB
      • Rosenthal DI
      • Holzman S
      • Klibanski A
      Mechanisms of osteoporosis in adult and adolescent women with anorexia nervosa.
      Diagnosis may be difficult because patients are resistant to seeking medical help and treatment. Total alkaline phosphatase activity may be elevated, but liver enzyme levels are also elevated, suggesting hepatic function may be altered. Osteocalcin, a marker of bone turnover, has been noted to be very low in women with anorexia nervosa and may be due to the excess endogenous cortisol levels. Markers of bone resorption, such as pyridinoline and N- telopeptide excretion, are usually increased and inversely correlated with BMD. The reduction in bone formation parameters and increase in levels of bone resorption markers suggest that bone remodeling is uncoupled. Serum vitamin D concentrations are highly variable and are affected by reduced dietary intake and diminished hepatic synthesis or binding capacity of vitamin D binding proteins in patients with estrogen deficiency. Elevated serum and urinary cortisol levels are common in women with anorexia nervosa. Hypercortisolism results from both increased production and decreased cortisol clearance as a result of the enhanced activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
      • Casper RC
      The pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
      Elevated growth hormone and suppressed IGF-1 levels have been described in these patients and may be due to prolonged nutritional deprivation and be responsible for the enhanced bone loss.
      • Friedman EJ
      Neuroendocrine aspects of bulimia.

       Immobilization

      Immobilization causes a rapid and diffuse bone loss. The nature and mechanics of normal bone stress have been intensely studied. When healthy adults are placed on bed rest, hypercalciuria develops and persists for months. Whole body mineral loss of about 0.5% per month can occur, and remineralization begins once ambulation is resumed. Data from space flights have revealed the critical importance of gravitational stress. Despite frequent strenuous exercise, astronauts in weightless orbit experience impressive hypercalciuria and a negative calcium balance.
      • Rambaut PC
      • Goode AW
      Skeletal changes during space flight.
      In healthy volunteers on bed rest, the total projected yearly loss in hip and spine BMD is more than 10% and calcaneal loss exceeds 50%.
      • Donaldson CL
      • Hulley SB
      • Vogel JM
      • Hattner RS
      • Bayers JH
      • McMillan DE
      Effect of prolonged bed rest on bone mineral.
      • LeBlanc AD
      • Schneider VS
      • Evans HJ
      • Engelbretson DA
      • Krebs JM
      Bone mineral loss and recovery after 17 weeks of bed rest.
      In a recent study
      • Zerwekh JE
      • Ruml LA
      • Gottschalk F
      • Pak CY
      The effects of twelve weeks of bed rest on bone histology, biochemical markers of bone turnover, and calcium homeostasis in eleven normal subjects.
      in which healthy patients underwent 12 weeks of bed rest, BMD declined at the spine and hip by 2.9% and 3.8%, respectively. Bed rest resulted in significantly increased levels of urinary calcium and phosphorus and serum calcium. Bone histomorphometric studies revealed a suppression of osteoblast surfaces and increased bone resorption, manifesting an increase in eroded surfaces. Surprisingly, serum biochemical markers of bone formation did not change, but biochemical markers of bone resorption significantly increased during bed rest and declined toward normal during reambulation.
      • Palle S
      • Vico L
      • Bourrin S
      • Alexandre C
      Bone tissue response to four-month antiorthostatic bedrest: a bone histomorphometric study.
      • Lueken SA
      • Arnaud SB
      • Taylor AK
      • Baylink DJ
      Changes in markers of bone formation and resorption in a bed rest model of weightlessness.
      Patients with paresis, stroke, quadriplegia, paraplegia, fracture, or prolonged bed rest after surgery are all at high risk for the development of osteoporosis.

       Hypervitaminosis A

      Hypervitaminosis A results in weakness, emotional lability, musculoskeletal pain, headache, pseudotumor cerebri, and osteopenia. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity (both bone and hepatic isoenzymes) may be elevated.
      It was noted that a higher incidence of osteoporosis- related fractures was found in northern Europe. It was proposed that these fractures may be related to the high dietary intake of vitamin A. Hip fracture rates, BMD, and estimation of retinol intake were assessed in a cross-sectional and nested case-control study
      • Melhus H
      • Michaelsson K
      • Kindmark A
      • et al.
      Excessive dietary intake of vitamin A is associated with reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for hip fracture.
      in Sweden. Multi- variate analysis revealed a negative association between BMD and vitamin A intake. For each 1-mg/d increase in vitamin A intake, hip fracture risk increased 68% (95% CI, 18%-140%). In a prospective analysis
      • Feskanich D
      • Singh V
      • Willett WC
      • Colditz GA
      Vitamin A intake and hip fractures among postmenopausal women.
      with 18 years of follow-up, a group of 72,337 postmenopausal nurses were evaluated for hip fractures and vitamin A intake. Women in the highest percentile of vitamin A intake had a significantly increased RR of nontraumatic hip fracture (RR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.05-2.07; P=.003).

       Marrow-Related Disorders

      Cancellous and endocortical bone surfaces are in close opposition to the bone marrow, and disorders of bone marrow can produce profound changes in bone. Plasma cell dyscrasia, such as multiple myeloma and macroglobu- linemia, are associated with bone disorders caused by an increase in bone-resorbing cytokines such as IL-1, TNF-a, and lymphotoxin.
      • Abildgaard N
      • Glerup H
      • Rungby J
      • et al.
      Biochemical markers of bone metabolism reflect osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity in multiple myeloma.
      • Davies FE
      • Rollinson SJ
      • Rawstron AC
      • et al.
      High-producer haplotypes of tumor necrosis factor alpha and lymphotoxin alpha are associated with an increased risk of myeloma and have an improved progression-free survival after treatment.
      Other disorders, such as leukemia, lymphomas, hemochromatosis, and systemic mastocytosis, can result in osteoporosis.
      • Marshall A
      • Kavanagh RT
      • Crisp AJ
      The effect of pamidronate on lumbar spine bone density and pain in osteoporosis secondary to systemic mastocytosis.
      • Chines A
      • Pacifici R
      • Avioli LA
      • Korenblat PE
      • Teitelbaum SL
      Systemic mastocytosis and osteoporosis.
      • Pear BL
      Skeletal manifestations of the lymphomas and leukemias.
      • Newman AJ
      • Melhorn DK
      Vertebral compression in childhood leukemia.
      • Diamond T
      • Stiel D
      • Posen S
      Osteoporosis in hemochromatosis: iron excess, gonadal deficiency, or other factors?.
      Chronic anemias, such as sickle cell anemia and β-thalassemia, are associated with bone loss, and bone diseases are common features of Gaucher disease and Niemann-Pick disease.
      • Lebel E
      • Itzchaki M
      • Elstein D
      • Hadas-Halpern I
      • Abrahamov A
      • Zimran A
      Skeletal manifestations in Gaucher disease: presentation and treatment.
      • Pais MJ
      Disease states affecting both liver and bone.

       METABOLIC BONE DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH GASTROINTESTINAL, PANCREATIC, AND HEPATIC DISORDERS

      The skeleton depends on the adequate supply of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D from the diet. Abnormalities of the hepatogastrointestinal tract may impair absorption of vitamins and minerals, resulting in bone disease. Intestinal calcium absorption occurs throughout the intestine, but the highest rates of absorption are in the duodenum. The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, controls the transcellular pathway of calcium absorption. At low calcium intakes, the transcellular pathway dominates and is highly efficient. If calcium intake increases, non- saturable but less efficient pathways, such as the para- cellular pathway, become important. Gastrointestinal disease leads to abnormalities in bone primarily due to the malabsorption of vitamin D and calcium, although the presence of the disease itself may lead to reduced intake or limited exposure to sunlight.
      Protein and other micronutrient deficiencies may contribute to bone loss in gastrointestinal tract disorders. Secondary hyperparathyroidism may be a consistent feature in these vitamin D-deficient patients with accelerated loss of cortical bone. When secondary hyperparathyroidism occurs, it is characterized by increased bone turnover with an increased surface area and volume of unmineralized tissue.
      Osteoporosis, pseudofractures, and fractures have been noted in patients after gastrectomy. In a large study
      • Bauer DC
      • Browner WS
      • Cauley JA
      • et al.
      Factors associated with appendicular bone mass in older women.
      of older women, gastrectomy correlated with an 8.2% decrease in bone density. In other studies,
      • Eddy RL
      Metabolic bone disease after gastrectomy.
      bone pain or tenderness has been observed in 26% of patients who underwent gastrectomy compared with 4% of controls. Bone biopsy specimens show widened osteoid seams in 32% of patients who underwent gastrectomy compared with 0 of 9 controls. Smokers appear to be at higher risk of fracture than nonsmokers.
      • Mellstrom D
      • Johansson C
      • Johnell O
      • et al.
      Osteoporosis, metabolic aberrations, and increased risk for vertebral fractures after partial gastrectomy.
      There appears to be a sex difference in that female patients are more predisposed to developing bone disease following gastrectomy.
      • Deller DJ
      • Edwards RG
      • Addison M
      Calcium metabolism and the bone after partial gastrectomy: the nature and cause of the bone disorder.
      Peptic ulcer disease followed by gastrectomy is not an uncommon problem, but bone disease may not develop until several years after the procedure. Thus, it may be an older patient who presents with manifestations of post- gastrectomy bone disease. Laboratory assessment reveals reductions in serum calcium and phosphate levels (although they may be within the normal range) and an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin levels. Urinary calcium excretion tends to be low. The PTH levels may be normal or slightly elevated. In most studies, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were reduced. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D levels may be slightly elevated, and the profile suggests mild hyperparathyroidism secondary to early vitamin D and calcium deficiency. Pseudofractures and fractures of the hip are less common but may occur. A mixed picture of both osteoporosis and osteomalacia may be present. Treatment of the bone disease can be complex, and the osteomalacic component should be treated with vitamin D and calcium supplements. Bone biopsy specimens can distinguish between the 2 diseases, but if no biopsy specimen is obtained, a clinical trial with vitamin D and calcium is warranted. Serum levels of 25-hydroxy- vitamin D can be used for monitoring.

       Bone Disease and Celiac Disease

      Bone disease associated with celiac disease can present as osteoporosis, osteomalacia, or both. Untreated adults usually present with reduced bone mineral at the time of diagnosis, whereas children may present with growth retardation.
      • Meyer D
      • Stavropolous S
      • Diamond B
      • Shane E
      • Green PH
      Osteoporosis in a North American adult population with celiac disease.
      • Mora S
      • Weber G
      • Barera G
      • et al.
      Effect of gluten-free diet on bone mineral content in growing patients with celiac disease.
      In celiac disease, the upper small intestine is usually more affected than the ileum. Patients may present with normal serum biochemical analysis results or with reduced serum and urine calcium levels and elevated alkaline phosphatase levels. With a gluten-free diet, biochemical abnormalities and bone density measurements may improve.
      • Kemppainen T
      • Kroger H
      • Janatuinen E
      • et al.
      Bone recovery after a gluten-free diet: a 5-year follow-up study.
      • Mora S
      • Barera G
      • Beccio S
      • et al.
      Bone density and bone metabolism are normal after long-term gluten-free diet in young celiac patients.
      Patients may present with spinal or rib fractures, and pseudofractures are uncommon.

       Inflammatory Bowel Disease

      Bone disease can be associated with inflammatory bowel disease, such as Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. The incidence of bone disease has been estimated at 3% to 77% of patients. In a study by Schulte et al,
      • Schulte C
      • Dignass AU
      • Mann K
      • Goebell H
      Reduced bone mineral density and unbalanced bone metabolism in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
      the incidence of osteopenia was 32% in patients with ulcerative colitis and 36% in those with Crohn disease. This study also found a 7% and 15% incidence of osteoporosis in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease, respectively. Skeletal bone disease is most frequently associated with Crohn disease, especially if treated with ileal resection and glucocorticoids. Either osteoporosis or osteomalacia may be present. The patients may present with bone pain, weakness, or elevated alkaline phosphatase activity.
      In Crohn disease, the biochemical and clinical features of bone disease may be subtle. Biochemical measurements are generally normal, but calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels may be low. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are reduced in 65% of patients, particularly those who have undergone ileal resection.
      • Dibble JB
      • Sheridan P
      • Losowsky MS
      A survey of vitamin D deficiency in gastrointestinal and liver disorders.
      • Compston JE
      • Judd D
      • Crawley EO
      • et al.
      Osteoporosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
      Osteopenia is common, but less than 10% of patients will have fractures or pseudofractures. A bone biopsy specimen is the only way to distinguish with certainty between osteomalacia and osteoporosis.
      In Crohn disease, there are multiple reasons for the development of bone disease, because malabsorption results in the reduction of vitamin D and calcium absorption. The resection of part of the intestine may also result in reduced vitamin D absorption. Vitamin D metabolites that are undergoing enterohepatic circulation cannot be reabsorbed if the ileum is diseased or resected. Steatorrhea may occur, decreasing both calcium and vitamin D absorption. Glucocorticoid therapy is frequently used for active disease and can also contribute to calcium malabsorption and bone loss. Treatment is usually in the form of cholecalciferol (4000-12,000 U/d), although calcifediol may be better absorbed than cholecalciferol in patients with steatorrhea. Dietary counseling and/or supplementation of calcium is warranted.

       Jejunoileal Bypass

      Jejunoileal bypass is used to treat massive obesity, and the subsequent development of bone disease is becoming better recognized. Reductions in serum calcium and magnesium levels with an increase in alkaline phosphatase level is observed in many patients within 3 months of operation and may persist. Osteomalacia or reduced trabecular bone volume apparent on bone biopsy specimens has been found in up to 60% of unselected individuals, although osteoporosis or osteopenia may not be found. In another study,
      • Compston JE
      • Vedi S
      • Gianetta E
      • Watson G
      • Civalleri D
      • Scopinaro N
      Bone histomorphometry and vitamin D status after biliopancreatic bypass for obesity.
      evidence for osteomalacia has been found on bone biopsy specimens of 73% of 41 subjects 1 to 5 years after ileal-pancreatic bypass procedure for obesity. Parathyroid hormone levels may be normal, and reduction in bone density is generally not found. Malabsorption of vitamin D, calcium, and magnesium has been demonstrated, and fatty infiltration of the liver may be present. Calcium supplementation to normalize urine calcium levels and cholecalciferol have been used successfully to treat bone disease following jejunoileal bypass.

      DISEASES OF THE PANCREAS Pancreatic Insufficiency

      Clinically significant bone disease in patients with pancreatic insufficiency due to cystic fibrosis or total pancreatectomy is not unusual. In children or young adults with cystic fibrosis, reduced bone density has been found and may be confounded by variables such as glucocorticoid use and hypogonadism.
      • Hahn TJ
      • Squires AE
      • Halstead LR
      • Strominger DB
      Reduced serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and disordered mineral metabolism in patients with cystic fibrosis.
      • Bachrach LK
      • Loutit CW
      • Moss RB
      Osteopenia in adults with cystic fibrosis.
      Clinical features include diabetes mellitus and steatorrhea. Steatorrhea probably has the most impact on vitamin D and calcium malabsorption. In a patient with bone disease secondary to pancreatic insufficiency, other complicating features, such as alcohol abuse, cholestasis, cirrhosis, or intrinsic small bowel involvement, should be evaluated. Patients with low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels should be treated with sufficient amounts to restore serum levels to normal. Either dietary or supplementary calcium is also an important adjuvant therapy.

      DISEASES OF THE LIVER

      Liver diseases may cause bone disease because of the inability of the liver to convert vitamin D to 25-hydroxy-vitamin D. The role of vitamin D depends on hepatically produced vitamin D transport proteins, albumin, and vitamin D binding protein. The development of bone disease also depends on the transport of vitamin D metabolites to the target tissues, the degree to which enterohepatic circulation of vitamin D as metabolites contributes to the maintenance of bone, and the role of bile in promoting vitamin D and calcium absorption, all of which may be affected by liver diseases.

       Chronic Cholestatic Diseases

      Primary biliary cirrhosis is the best-studied chronic cholestatic disease. It occurs most frequently in middle- aged women, an age at which postmenopausal osteoporosis is common and may be difficult to distinguish from the osteoporosis associated with liver disease. In primary biliary cirrhosis, both osteoporosis and osteomalacia can occur concurrently.
      Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis are often asymptomatic, although they may present with bone pain and have osteoporosis or osteomalacia apparent on bone biopsy specimens. Serum and urine calcium, serum phosphorus, and serum magnesium levels may be normal or slightly reduced. In this setting, PTH levels may be low, but reports of elevated PTH levels have also been found.
      • Fonseca V
      • Epstein O
      • Gill DS
      • et al.
      Hyperparathyroidism and low serum osteocalcin despite vitamin D replacement in primary biliary cirrhosis.
      Alkaline phosphatase activity may be elevated due to liver isoenzymes. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels decrease as the disease progresses, but serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is not a good predictor of bone disease.
      • Long RG
      • Meinhard E
      • Skinner RT
      • Varghese Z
      • Wills MR
      • Sherlock S
      Clinical, biochemical, and histological studies of osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and parathyroid function in chronic liver disease.
      Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis have increased fracture rates, but decreased BMD and pseudofractures are rare. Children with biliary atresia may present with florid rickets. Even if biliary atresia is surgically corrected, there is a high likelihood of developing rickets, which is readily treated with cholecalciferol.

       Chronic Active Hepatitis

      Patients with chronic active hepatitis have less metabolic bone disease than patients with other liver diseases, unless they have been treated with glucocorticoids. Forty- seven percent of patients with chronic active hepatitis due to glucocorticoid hormones have osteopenia, but the prevalence of bone disease in the absence of treatment has not been established.
      • Stellon AJ
      • Davies A
      • Compston J
      • Williams R
      Bone loss in autoimmune chronic active hepatitis on maintenance corticosteroid therapy.
      Bone disease is usually asymptomatic. Patients with chronic active hepatitis tend to have 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels below normal and a reduction in vitamin D binding protein levels, suggesting that free 25- hydroxyvitamin D may be normal. Osteomalacia is uncommon. Scarcity of data makes it problematic to suggest a pathogenic mechanism for bone disease in chronic active hepatitis. Vitamin D deficiency secondary to malabsorption or impaired hepatic conversion of vitamin D to 25- hydroxyvitamin D may be implicated. Glucocorticoid therapy is likely to be the most important player in the pathogenesis of bone disease in these patients. Limiting the use of glucocorticoid therapy, providing adequate nutrition, and encouraging sunlight exposure are the first treatment modalities. The role of cholecalciferol and calcium supplementation must be individualized.

       Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

      Bone disease due to alcoholism is not restricted to patients who develop cirrhosis. Alcohol abuse is a major cause of liver disease, and cirrhosis contributes to the severity of bone disease. Spinal osteopenia may be observed in up to 50% of ambulatory patients with alcoholism, and fractures of the ribs or vertebrae occur in 30% of this population.
      • Lindsell DR
      • Wilson AG
      • Maxwel JD
      Fractures on the chest radiograph in detection of alcoholic liver disease.
      • Israel Y
      • Orrego H
      • Holt S
      • Macdonald DW
      • Meema HE
      Identification of alcohol abuse: thoracic fractures on routine chest X-rays as indicators of alcoholism.
      The clinical picture may be complicated by past partial gastrectomy in some patients. Osteoporosis is usually the predominant disease, although osteomalacia may occur. Sex differences occur in that chronic alcohol abuse has a detrimental effect on the male skeleton, whereas a neutral or beneficial effect with light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is seen on the female skeleton.
      • Turner RT
      Skeletal response to alcohol.
      Idiopathic osteoporosis may be the clinical presentation of alcohol-related liver disease. Serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium tend to be in the low normal range, but in binge drinkers, the serum levels of these minerals may be sufficiently reduced to cause neuromuscular disturbances and rhabdomyolysis requiring hospitalization. Poor nutrition contributes to the picture, with a reduction in serum albumin levels. Serum PTH levels may be elevated or high normal and may be due to short-term administration of alcohol or the low calcium and magnesium levels. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels are usually low, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels have been reported as low, normal, or high. Cancellous bone is more affected than cortical bone when evaluating BMD.
      • Bikle DD
      • Genant HK
      • Cann C
      • Recker RR
      • Halloran BP
      • Strewler GJ
      Bone disease in alcohol abuse.
      Fractures are common and pseudofractures are rare. Although initially it was thought that these patients presented with osteomalacia, the fact that osteoporosis is predominant has led to the hypothesis that the prime offender is alcohol or one of its metabolites. Alcohol directly inhibits bone cell activity, resulting in reduced bone formation and bone resorption. Cessation of alcohol consumption can reverse or at least stop progression of disease. If 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are low, cholecalciferol therapy should be considered. Malabsorption is usually fairly mild, and ensuring adequate nutrition is appropriate. It is unclear how reversible the osteoporosis is in the disorder.

      TRANSPLANTATION OSTEOPOROSIS

      Organ transplantation has become an effective therapy for end-stage renal, hepatic, cardiac, and pulmonary disease.
      • Rodino MA
      • Shane E
      Osteoporosis after organ transplantation.
      One-year patient survival is excellent, averaging 98% for living donor kidney, 87% for liver, and 85% for cardiac transplant recipients. Many patients now live for more than 10 years. Unfortunately, many transplant patients demonstrate a propensity to fracture, which greatly aggravates their quality of life. The pathogenesis of transplantation osteoporosis is incompletely understood, but risk factors include white race, older age, postmenopausal status, vitamin D deficiency, physical inactivity, dietary calcium deficiency, and excessive use of tobacco and alcohol. Patients who are candidates for transplantation are often exposed to loop diuretics, anticoagulants, or corticosteroids, which are associated with bone loss. Transplant recipients require immunosuppressant therapy, which inhibits T-cell function. Glucocorticoids are often prescribed in high doses immediately after transplantation and during episodes of rejection. Cyclosporine is another commonly used immunosuppressant, which, in animal models, causes severe trabecular bone loss and acceleration of bone turn- over.
      • Katz I
      • Li M
      • Joffe I
      • et al.
      Influence of age on cyclosporin A-induced alterations in bone mineral metabolism in the rat in vivo.
      Another commonly used immunosuppressant, tacrolimus, also causes severe bone loss in the rat model.
      • Romero DF
      • Buchinsky FJ
      • Rucinski B
      • et al.
      Rapamycin: a bone sparing immunosuppressant?.
      Since both drugs are prescribed concurrently with glucocorticoids, it is often difficult to assess the individual contribution of each medication to the metabolic bone disease associated with transplantation.

       Kidney Transplantation

      The kidney is the most commonly transplanted organ. Patients undergoing kidney transplantation usually have some form of renal osteodystrophy, are hypogonadal, and have been exposed to medications that can affect bone metabolism. Kidney transplantation is associated with resolution of aluminum-related bone disease and amyloidosis, but immunosuppression may cause additional problems. All cross-sectional studies of renal transplant recipients demonstrate lower BMD than normal, and prospective studies
      • Julian BA
      • Laskow DA
      • Dubovsky J
      • Dubovsky EV
      • Curtis JJ
      • Quarles LD
      Rapid loss of vertebral mineral density after renal transplantation.
      • Horber FF
      • Casez JP
      • Steiger U
      • Czerniak A
      • Montandon A
      • Jaeger P
      Changes in bone mass early after kidney transplantation.
      estimate that lumbar spine bone loss varies from 3% to 9% during the first 6 months after transplantation and predominantly affects cancellous bone. Fracture prevalence ranges from 7% to 11% in nondiabetic renal transplant recipients and up to 36% to 45% in patients who receive kidney or pancreas and kidney transplants for diabetic nephropathy.
      • Nisbeth U
      • Lindh E
      • Ljunghall S
      • Backman U
      • Fellstrom B
      Fracture frequency after kidney transplantation.
      After transplantation, restoration of renal function corrects many of the abnormalities that adversely affect the skeleton. These include acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and low serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. Parathyroid hormone levels may remain elevated immediately after transplantation and may never normalize. Hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia related to persistent parathyroid hyperplasia may occur in the first few months. This is usually mild and may resolve within the first year. Most patients have elevated markers of bone formation, which is surprising in view of their high doses of glucocorticoids, which would be expected to suppress bone formation. This finding is thought to be due to the persistently increased PTH levels, which may overcome the depressive effects of glucocorticoids. Thus, bone turnover is increased after renal transplantation.

       Cardiac Transplantation

      Bone mineral density may be lower in patients who need heart transplants than in healthy individuals, and low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D are common in patients with severe heart failure. Prerenal azotemia may result in secondary hyperparathyroidism. As a result, osteoporosis is common in cardiac transplant recipients. Markers of bone formation and resorption are elevated and correlate with intact PTH. Lumbar spine BMD decreases by 6% to 10% within the first 6 months after transplantation with stabilization thereafter. Hip BMD declines throughout the first year and is often 10% to 15% below baseline levels.
      • Shane E
      • Rivas M
      • McMahon DJ
      • et al.
      Bone loss and turnover after cardiac transplantation.
      A longitudinal study
      • Shane E
      • Rivas M
      • Staron RB
      • et al.
      Fracture after cardiac transplantation: a prospective longitudinal study.
      demonstrated that 36% of patients (54% of women and 29% of men) sustained 1 or more fractures during the first year after transplantation, despite supplementation with calcium and cholecalciferol. Most patients sustain their first fracture in the first year after transplantation.
      • Epstein S
      • Shane E
      • Bilezikian JP
      Organ transplantation and osteoporosis.
      • Shane E
      • Rivas MC
      • Silverberg SJ
      • Kim TS
      • Staron RB
      • Bilezikian JP
      Osteoporosis after cardiac transplantation.
      In another longitudinal study,
      • Shane E
      • Rivas M
      • McMahon DJ
      • et al.
      Bone loss and turnover after cardiac transplantation.
      rates of bone loss were directly associated with prednisone dose and resorption markers and inversely related to vitamin D metabolites and testosterone. Resorption markers are either transiently or persistently elevated after cardiac transplantation.

       Liver Transplantation

      Abnormal mineral metabolism is a hallmark of many types of liver disease; therefore, candidates for liver transplantation may have osteoporosis and fractures before transplantation. In a study
      • Monegal A
      • Navasa M
      • Guanabens N
      • et al.
      Osteoporosis and bone mineral metabolism disorders in cirrhotic patients referred for liver transplantation.
      of 58 patients with cirrhosis referred for liver transplantation, 43% had osteoporosis. Bone formation is usually suppressed and serum osteocalcin levels are low. Serum testosterone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and PTH levels are lower in patients, whereas urinary hydroxyproline excretion may be higher. The natural history of osteoporosis after liver transplantation is similar to that observed after cardiac transplantation.
      • Porayko MK
      • Wiesner RH
      • Hay JE
      • et al.
      Bone disease in liver transplant recipients: incidence, timing, and risk factors.
      • Haagsma EB
      • Thijn CJ
      • Post JG
      • Slooff MJ
      • Gips CH
      Bone disease after orthotopic liver transplantation.
      However, rates of bone loss and fracture may be higher. Lumbar spine BMD may decrease by 4% to 24% within the first year after transplantation.
      • Ramsey-Goldman R
      • Dunn JE
      • Dunlop DD
      • et al.
      Increased risk of fracture in patients receiving solid organ transplants.
      Gradual improvement occurs in the second and third posttransplantation year. Fracture incidence is highest in the first year and ranges from 24% to 65% in a group of women with primary biliary cirrhosis.
      • Ramsey-Goldman R
      • Dunn JE
      • Dunlop DD
      • et al.
      Increased risk of fracture in patients receiving solid organ transplants.
      • Eastell R
      • Dickson RE
      • Hodgson SF
      • et al.
      Rates of vertebral bone loss before and after liver transplantation in women with primary biliary cirrhosis.
      The most common fracture sites are the vertebrae and ribs.

       Lung Transplantation

      Prior glucocorticoid therapy, tobacco use, and hypoxemia may be associated with pretransplantation osteopenia in patients with lung disease. Cystic fibrosis is associated with osteoporosis and fractures due to pancreatic insufficiency, vitamin D deficiency, calcium malabsorption, and hypogonadism. Osteoporosis or low bone mass was present in 45% to 75% of candidates for lung transplantation, and in many studies,
      • Ramsey-Goldman R
      • Dunn JE
      • Dunlop DD
      • et al.
      Increased risk of fracture in patients receiving solid organ transplants.
      • Ott SM
      • Aitken ML
      Osteoporosis in patients with cystic fibrosis.
      • Shane E
      • Papadopoulos A
      • Staron RB
      • et al.
      Bone loss and fracture after lung transplantation.
      glucocorticoid exposure is inversely related to BMD. Fracture prevalence is also high and has been described as 29% in patients with emphysema and 25% in patients with cystic fibrosis. Many lung transplant patients have fragility fractures and bone loss, and risk factors include glucocorticoid therapy, high bone turnover after transplantation, and lower lumbar spine BMD before transplantation.
      • Cahill BC
      • O'Rourke MK
      • Parker S
      • Stringham JC
      • Karwande SV
      • Knecht TP
      Prevention of bone loss and fracture after lung transplantation: a pilot study.

       Bone Marrow Transplantation

      In preparation for bone marrow transplantation, patients receive myeloablative therapy and may develop profound hypogonadism. In addition, pretransplantation factors may cause bone loss, and it has been estimated that bone loss may occur in up to two thirds of patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation.
      • Kelly PJ
      • Atkinson K
      • Ward RL
      • Sambrook PN
      • Biggs JC
      • Eisman JA
      Reduced bone mineral density in men and women with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
      In adults undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, mean lumbar spine and hip BMD declined most rapidly the first 6 months after transplantation.
      • Kashyap A
      • Kandeel F
      • Yamauchi D
      • et al.
      Effects of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on recipient bone mineral density: a prospective study.
      In contrast, children who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation had significantly less whole body bone mineral content and bone mineral areal density than healthy controls, but the reduced bone mineral content was due to reduced height. Overall, 8 years after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in children, the whole body mass had only slightly reduced and the bone mineral content for bone area was normal.
      • Nysom K
      • Holm K
      • Michaelsen KF
      • et al.
      Bone mass after allogeneic BMT for childhood leukaemia or lymphoma.

       PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF OSTEOPOROSIS IN TRANSPLANTATION PATIENTS

      Before organ transplantation, a thorough evaluation for osteoporosis and abnormalities of mineral metabolism should be assessed. Bone mineral density of the hip and spine is an important measurement to assess. Although pretransplantation BMD does not reliably predict fractures, low pretransplantation BMD is associated with increased fracture risk, particularly in postmenopausal women. Anti- resorptive therapy increases BMD and reduces fracture rate in other patients, so this is the general approach, even though there are few studies showing that this therapy is useful after transplantation. Radiographic evaluation of the thoracic and lumbar spine is important because the risk of future fracture is greater in patients with prevalent vertebral fractures. Biochemical evaluation should include measurement of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, thyroid function tests, and (in men) testosterone. Bone markers of formation or resorption are most useful in a research setting. Patients should receive a minimum of 400 IU of cholecalciferol (800 IU for patients receiving =5 mg/d of prednisone) and elemental calcium (1000-1500 mg, depending on calcium intake, urinary calcium excretion, and menopausal status). Hormone replacement therapy is recommended for postmenopausal and pre- menopausal amenorrheic women. Hormone replacement therapy should also be given to hypogonadal men who do not have a contraindication. Since pretransplantation waiting time may be long, aggressive treatment with an antiresorptive agent may result in significant improvement in bone mass before transplantation.
      • Rodino MA
      • Shane E
      Osteoporosis after organ transplantation.
      • Stein B
      • Takizawa M
      • Katz I
      • et al.
      Salmon calcitonin prevents cyclosporin-A-induced high turnover bone loss.
      • Grotz WH
      • Rump LC
      • Niessen A
      • et al.
      Treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis after kidney transplantation.
      • Garcia-Delgado I
      • Prieto S
      • Gil-Fraguas L
      • Robles E
      • Rufilanchas JJ
      • Hawkins F
      Calcitonin, etidronate, and calcidiol treatment in bone loss after cardiac transplantation.

       CARE OF THE PATIENT AFTER TRANSPLANTATION

      Since bone loss occurs most rapidly in the first 3 to 6 months after transplantation and fragility fractures occur within this same period, preventive strategies should be instituted immediately. Several randomized clinical studies
      • Adachi JD
      • Bensen WG
      • Brown J
      • et al.
      Intermittent etidronate therapy to prevent corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis.
      • Saag KG
      • Emkey R
      • Schnitzer TJ
      • et al.
      Alendronate for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.
      have shown that cyclic etidronate or alendronate prevents glucocorticoid-induced bone loss. Other studies
      • Buchs N
      • Helg C
      • Collao C
      • et al.
      Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is associated with a preferential femoral neck bone loss.
      • Arlen DJ
      • Lambert K
      • Ioannidis G
      • Adachi JD
      Treatment of established bone loss after renal transplantation with etidronate.
      • Henderson K
      • Eisman J
      • Keogh A
      • et al.
      Protective effect of short-term calcitriol or cyclical etidronate on bone loss after cardiac or lung transplantation.
      suggest that etidronate and pamidronate can also prevent bone loss and fractures after transplantation. Bis- phosphonates should be used with caution in patients with moderate-to-severe renal insufficiency, as indicated by serum creatinine levels of more than 3.0 mg/dL or creatinine clearance of less than 30 mL/min/SA. Alendronate and pamidronate therapies are associated with decreases in serum phosphorus and calcium levels and increases in PTH concentration; therefore, these drugs may prolong the resolution of secondary hyperparathyroidism after renal transplantation. In addition, the effects of bisphosphonates on adynamic bone in renal transplant recipients may alter the remodeling cycle and biomechanical properties.
      • Weber TJ
      • Quarles LD
      Preventing bone loss after renal transplantation with bisphosphonates: we can… but should we? [editorial].
      Calcitonin is another antiresorptive drug that has been used successfully to treat transplantation-associated osteoporosis. A randomized study
      • Valero MA
      • Loinaz C
      • Larrodera L
      • Leon M
      • Moreno E
      • Hawkins F
      Calcitonin and bisphosphonates treatment in bone loss after liver transplantation.
      comparing oral etidronate and injectable calcitonin after liver transplantation showed a comparable increase in vertebral BMD in both groups. Fewer data are available regarding prevention of fractures, and the efficacy of intranasal calcitonin in transplant recipients has not been evaluated.
      Analogues of vitamin D may be prescribed in several forms, either as the parent compound or as 25-hydroxy- vitamin D (calcidiol). The administration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) has been most recently evaluated and is thought to be effective after heart or lung transplantation.
      • Henderson K
      • Eisman J
      • Keogh A
      • et al.
      Protective effect of short-term calcitriol or cyclical etidronate on bone loss after cardiac or lung transplantation.
      • Sambrook P
      • Henderson NK
      • Keogh A
      • et al.
      Effect of calcitriol on bone loss after cardiac or lung transplantation.
      Frequent monitoring of serum and urinary calcium is necessary because hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria may occur.

       Hormone Replacement Therapy

      No studies have been published regarding the effects of estrogen replacement therapy in organ transplant recipients.
      Estrogens improve BMD in women ingesting glucocorticoids,
      • Lukert BP
      • Raisz LG
      Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: pathogenesis and management.
      and this is the basis for their use in patients receiving organ transplants. Constant daily administration of estrogen and progesterone is preferred, because estrogen enhances the hepatic metabolism of cyclosporine and a cyclic regimen could result in fluctuating levels. Estrogen alone may not be enough to prevent posttransplantation bone loss, so additional therapy is usually recommended.
      In chronic illness, hypogonadism is common in men because of the suppressive effects of glucocorticoids and cyclosporine on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in lower testosterone levels. Testosterone levels may normalize within the first 6 to 12 months after transplantation in approximately 25% of men.
      • Sambrook PN
      • Kelly PJ
      • Keogh AM
      • et al.
      Bone loss after heart transplantation: a prospective study.
      • Sambrook PN
      • Kelly PJ
      • Fontana D
      • et al.
      Mechanisms of rapid bone loss following cardiac transplantation.
      Men who are truly hypogonadal should be treated with testosterone even though there are no data on the effects of testosterone replacement on the rates of bone loss after organ transplantation. Other benefits of testosterone include increased muscle mass and hemoglobin levels. Risks include abnormal liver enzyme levels, acceleration of hyperlipidemia, and prostatic hypertrophy requiring monitoring of serum lipid and liver enzyme levels as well as regular prostate examination.

      TARGETING INTERVENTIONS OF AN ASYMPTOMATIC PATIENT POPULATION

      There is much controversy regarding the best work-up for patients who have been diagnosed as having osteoporosis based on BMD. The problem with attempting to apply strict diagnostic criteria regarding who may have a secondary or reversible cause of osteoporosis is that few data exist to provide adequate guidance. Most of the information that has been gathered has either been from subspecialty clinics, which would have an inherent bias (such as a rheumatology clinic where glucocorticoid treatment may be prevalent), or the clinical and biochemical evaluation may not be thorough enough to rule out most existing causes of bone loss. Some interesting data are available in patients who have already experienced a fracture, another category that does not help the outpatient evaluation of an otherwise unaffected patient with osteoporosis.
      It is difficult to decide where interventions should be targeted both from a patient's perspective and for cost- effectiveness. The WHO definitions of osteopenia (T score, −1.0 to −2.5) and osteoporosis (T score, =2.5) were never intended to be used as diagnostic criteria for disease, and arbitrary cutoffs may miss many individuals. It is also clear that secondary causes of osteoporosis are not considered in many patients. In a study sample of 142 female patients with abnormal BMD referred by internists or gynecologists, in those diagnosed as having osteoporosis, 20.4% had no further investigations and 27.8% underwent only mammography. Most of these patients (71.8%) received a combination of calcium and cholecalciferol only as treatment. Thus, even a bone densitometry measurement did not alter treatment in a substantial number of patients, and many patients did not undergo further investigation to rule out a secondary cause of bone loss.
      • Economides PA
      • Kaklamani VG
      • Karavas I
      • Papaioannou GI
      • Supran S
      • Mirel RD
      Assessment of physician responses to abnormal results of bone densitometry studies.
      Secondary causes of bone loss can be observed with high frequency in patients with hip fracture. In a community-based sample, we found that up to 77% of patients have abnormal laboratory results (n=33).
      • Fitzpatrick LA
      • Loftus J
      • Faurot M
      • Bolander M
      Secondary causes of hip fracture in community-dwelling patients [abstract].
      This finding has the inherent bias of assessing biochemical laboratory tests in a group of elderly patients who have already experienced a fracture and may not be relevant to a preventive population.
      Many clinical guidelines suggest that an extensive work-up for secondary causes of osteoporosis should be performed in patients who meet certain BMD criteria. This recommendation is highly problematic because there is no evidence that patients with a certain reduction in T score are more likely to have a secondary cause of bone loss. In addition, the WHO criteria for BMD T scores were never intended to be used as diagnostic criteria and represent the prevalence of disease in a population. With the myriad factors that make up BMD, relying on this criterion alone is fraught with problems. Clinical judgment is an important additional factor in assessment of the osteoporotic patient.

      REFERENCES

        • Orwoll ES
        Osteoporosis in men.
        Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1998; 27: 349-367
        • Haden ST
        • Fuleihan GE
        • Angell JE
        • Cotran NM
        • LeBoff MS
        Calcidiol and PTH levels in women attending an osteoporosis program.
        Calcif Tissue Int. 1999; 64: 275-279
        • Peris P
        • Guanabens N
        • Monegal A
        • et al.
        Aetiology and presenting symptoms in male osteoporosis.
        Br J Rheumatol. 1995; 34: 936-941
        • Scane AC
        • Sutcliffe AM
        • Francis RM
        Osteoporosis in men.
        Baillieres Clin Rheumatol. 1993; 7: 589-601
        • Caplan GA
        • Scane AC
        • Francis RM
        Pathogenesis of vertebral crush fractures in women.
        J R Soc Med. 1994; 87: 200-202
        • Kelepouris N
        • Harper KD
        • Gannon F
        • Kaplan FS
        • Haddad JG
        Severe osteoporosis in men.
        Ann Intern Med. 1995; 123: 452-460
        • Van Staa TP
        • Leufkens HG
        • Abenhaim L
        • Zhang B
        • Cooper C
        Use of oral corticosteroids and risk of fractures.
        J Bone Miner Res. 2000; 15: 993-1000
        • Canalis E
        • Giustina A
        Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: summary of a workshop.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001; 86: 5681-5685
        • Reid IR
        Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.
        Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000; 14: 279-298
        • McKenzie R
        • Reynolds JC
        • O'Fallon A
        • et al.
        Decreased bone mineral density during low dose glucocorticoid administration in a randomized, placebo controlled trial.
        J Rheumatol. 2000; 27: 2222-2226
        • Israel E
        • Banerjee TR
        • Fitzmaurice GM
        • et al.
        Effects of inhaled glucocorticoids on bone density in premenopausal women.
        N Engl J Med. 2001; 345: 941-947
        • Michel GA
        • Bloch DA
        • Wolfe F
        • Fried JF
        Fractures in rheumatoid arthritis: an evaluation of associated risk factors.
        J Rheumatol. 1993; 20: 1666-1669
        • Centrella M
        • Casinghino S
        • McCarthy TL
        Differential actions of prostaglandins in separate cell populations from fetal rat bone.
        Endocrinology. 1994; 135: 1611-1620
        • Raisz LG
        • Koolemans-Beynen AR
        Inhibition of bone collagen synthesis by prostaglandin E2 in organ culture.
        Prostaglandins. 1974; 8: 377-385
        • McCarthy TL
        • Ji C
        • Casinghino S
        • Centrella M
        Alternate signaling pathways selectively regulate binding of insulin-like growth factor I and II on fetal rat bone cells.
        J Cell Biochem. 1998; 68: 446-456
        • Conover CA
        In vitro studies of insulin-like growth factor I and bone.
        Growth Horm IGF Res. 2000; 10: S107-S110
        • Weinstein RS
        • Jilka RL
        • Parfitt AM
        • Manolagas SC
        Inhibition of osteoblastogenesis and promotion of apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes by glucocorticoids: potential mechanisms of their deleterious effects on bone.
        J Clin Invest. 1998; 102: 274-282
        • Manelli F
        • Giustina A
        Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.
        Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2000; 11: 79-85
        • Weinstein RS
        • Nicholas RW
        • Manolagas SC
        Apoptosis of osteocytes in glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of the hip.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000; 85: 2907-2912
        • American College of Rheumatology Ad Hoc Committee on Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis
        Recommendations for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: 2001 update.
        Arthritis Rheum. 2001; 44: 1496-1503
        • Lukert BP
        Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.
        in: Favus MJ Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism. 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa1999: 292-296
        • Gonnelli S
        • Rottoli P
        • Cepollaro C
        • et al.
        Prevention of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis with alendronate in sarcoid patients.
        Calcif Tissue Int. 1997; 61: 382-385
        • Adachi JD
        • Bensen WG
        • Brown J
        • et al.
        Intermittent etidronate therapy to prevent corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis.
        N Engl J Med. 1997; 337: 382-387
        • Reid IR
        • King AR
        • Alexander CJ
        • Ibbertson HK
        Prevention of steroid-induced osteoporosis with (3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene)-1, 1-bisphosphonate (APD).
        Lancet. 1988; 1: 143-146
        • Adachi JD
        • Saag KG
        • Delmas PD
        • et al.
        Two-year effects of alendronate on bone mineral density and vertebral fracture in patients receiving glucocorticoids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled extension trial.
        Arthritis Rheum. 2001; 44: 202-211
        • Cohen S
        • Levy RM
        • Keller M
        • et al.
        Risedronate therapy prevents corticosteroid-induced bone loss: a twelve-month, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study.
        Arthritis Rheum. 1999; 42: 2309-2318
        • Dent CE
        • Richens A
        • Rowe DJ
        • Stamp TC
        Osteomalacia with long-term anticonvulsant therapy in epilepsy.
        Br Med J. 1970; 4: 69-72
        • Hunter J
        • Maxwell JD
        • Stewart DA
        • Parsons V
        • Williams R
        Altered calcium metabolism in epileptic children on anticonvulsants.
        Br Med J. 1971; 4: 202-204
        • Pylypchuk G
        • Oreopoulos DG
        • Wilson DR
        • et al.
        Calcium metabolism in adult outpatients with epilepsy receiving long-term anticonvulsant therapy.
        Can Med Assoc J. 1978; 118: 635-638
        • Ashworth B
        • Horn DB
        Evidence of osteomalacia in an outpatient group of adult epileptics.
        Epilepsia. 1977; 18: 37-43
        • Matheson RT
        • Herbst JJ
        • Jubiz W
        • Freston JW
        • Tolman KG
        Absorption and biotransformation of cholecalciferol in drug-induced osteomalacia.
        J Clin Pharmacol. 1976; 16: 426-432
        • Hahn TJ
        • Birge SJ
        • Scharp CR
        • Avioli LV
        Phenobarbital-induced alterations in vitamin D metabolism.
        J Clin Invest. 1972; 51: 741-748
        • Gough H
        • Goggin T
        • Bissessar A
        • et al.
        A comparative study of the relative influence of different anticonvulsant drugs, UV exposure and diet on vitamin D and calcium metabolism in out-patients with epilepsy.
        Q J Med. 1986; 59: 569-577
        • Bikle DD
        Drug-induced osteomalacia.
        in: Favus MJ Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism. 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa1999: 343-346
        • Felsenfeld AJ
        • Rodriguez M
        • Coleman M
        • Ross D
        • Llach F
        Desferrioxamine therapy in hemodialysis patients with aluminum-associated bone disease.
        Kidney Int. 1989; 35: 1371-1378
        • Mosekilde L
        • Eriksen EF
        • Charles P
        Effects of thyroid hormone on bone and mineral metabolism.
        Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1990; 19: 35-63
        • Rosen CJ
        • Alder RA
        Longitudinal changes in lumbar bone density among thyrotoxic patients after attainment of euthyroidism.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992; 75: 1531-1534
        • Cummings SR
        • Nevitt MC
        • Browner WS
        • et al.
        Risk factors for hip fracture in white women: study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group.
        N Engl J Med. 1995; 332: 767-773
        • Obermayer-Pietsch B
        • Dobnig H
        • Warnkross H
        • et al.
        Variable bone mass recovery in hyperthyroid bone disease after radioiodine therapy in postmenopausal patients.
        Maturitas. 2000; 35: 159-166
        • Faber J
        • Galloe AM
        Changes in bone mass during prolonged subclinical hyperthyroidism due to L-thyroxine treatment: a meta-analysis.
        Eur J Endocrinol. 1994; 130: 350-356
        • Obermayer-Pietsch BM
        • Fruhauf GE
        • Chararas K
        • et al.
        Association of the vitamin D receptor genotype BB with low bone density in hyperthyroidism.
        J Bone Miner Res. 2000; 15: 1950-1955
        • Bilezikian JP
        • Silverberg SJ
        Clinical spectrum of primary hyperparathyroidism.
        Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2000; 1: 237-245
        • Dempster DW
        • Parisien M
        • Silverberg SJ
        • et al.
        On the mechanism of cancellous bone preservation in postmenopausal women with mild primary hyperparathyroidism.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999; 84: 1562-1566
        • Rosen CJ
        • Rackoff PJ
        Emerging anabolic treatment for osteoporosis.
        Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2001; 27 (viii.): 215-233
        • Neer RM
        • Arnaud CD
        • Zanchetta JR
        • et al.
        Effect of parathyroid hormone (1-34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
        N Engl J Med. 2001; 344: 1434-1441
        • Udagawa N
        • Takahashi N
        • Jimi E
        • et al.
        Osteoblasts/stromal cells stimulate osteoclast activation through expression of osteoclast differentiation factor/RANKL but not macrophage colony-stimulating factor: receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand.
        Bone. 1999; 25: 517-523
        • Silverberg SJ
        • Shane E
        • Jacobs TP
        • Siris E
        • Bilezikian JP
        A 10-year prospective study of primary hyperparathyroidism with or without parathyroid surgery [published correction appears in N Engl J Med. 2000;342:144].
        N Engl J Med. 1999; 341: 1249-1255
        • Parisien MV
        • Silverberg SJ
        • Shane E
        • et al.
        The histomorphometry of bone in primary hyperparathyroidism: preservation of cancellous bone structure.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990; 70: 930-938
        • Khosla S
        • Melton III, LJ
        • Wermers RA
        • Crowson CS
        • O'Fallon W
        • Riggs B
        Primary hyperparathyroidism and the risk of fracture: a population-based study.
        J Bone Miner Res. 1999; 14: 1700-1707
        • Vestergaard P
        • Mollerup CL
        • Frokjaer VG
        • Christiansen P
        • Blichert-Toft M
        • Mosekilde L
        Cohort study of risk of fracture before and after surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism.
        BMJ. 2000; 321: 598-602
        • Melton III, LJ
        • Atkinson EJ
        • O'Fallon WM
        • Heath III, H
        Risk of age-related fractures in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
        Arch Intern Med. 1992; 152: 2269-2273
        • Larsson K
        • Lindh E
        • Lind L
        • Persson I
        • Ljunghall S
        Increased fracture risk in hypercalcemia: bone mineral content measured in hyperparathyroidism.
        Acta Orthop Scand. 1989; 60: 268-270
        • Mori S
        • Shiraki M
        • Fujimaki H
        • Ito H
        Bone fracture in elderly female with primary hyperparathyroidism: relationship among renal function, vitamin D status and fracture risk.
        Horm Metab Res. 1987; 19: 183-185
        • Lesse GP
        • Fraser WD
        • Farquharson R
        • Hipkin L
        • Vora JP
        Gonadal status is an important determinant of bone density in acromegaly.
        Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1998; 48: 59-65
        • Lund B
        • Eskildsen PC
        • Norman AW
        • Sorensen OH
        Calcium and vitamin D metabolism in acromegaly.
        Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1981; 96: 444-450
        • Jockenhovel F
        • Rohrbach S
        • Deggerich S
        • Reinwein D
        • Reiners C
        Differential presentation of cortical and trabecular peripheral bone mineral density in acromegaly.
        Eur J Med Res. 1996; 1: 377-382
        • Longobardi S
        • Di Somma C
        • Di Rella F
        • et al.
        Bone mineral density and circulating cytokines in patients with acromegaly.
        J Endocrinol Invest. 1998; 21: 688-693
        • Pocock NA
        • Eisman JA
        • Dunstan CR
        • Evans RA
        • Thomas DH
        • Huq NL
        Recovery from steroid-induced osteoporosis.
        Ann Intern Med. 1987; 107: 319-323
        • Di Somma C
        • Colao A
        • Pivonello R
        • et al.
        Effectiveness of chronic treatment with alendronate in the osteoporosis of Cushing's disease.
        Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1998; 48: 655-662
        • Reddy GK
        • Stehno-Bittel L
        • Hamade S
        • Enwemeka CS
        The biomechanical integrity of bone in experimental diabetes.
        Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2001; 54: 1-8
        • Leidig-Bruckner G
        • Ziegler R
        Diabetes mellitus a risk for osteoporosis?.
        Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2001; 109: S493-S514
        • Jehle PM
        • Jehle DR
        • Mohan S
        • Bohm BO
        Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor system components and relationship to bone metabolism in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.
        J Endocrinol. 1998; 159: 297-306
        • Luciano AA
        Clinical presentation of hyperprolactinemia.
        J Reprod Med. 1999; 44: 1085-1090
        • Crosignani PG
        • Vegetti W
        A practical guide to the diagnosis and management of amenorrhea.
        Drugs. 1996; 52: 671-681
        • Biller BM
        • Baum HB
        • Rosenthal DI
        • Saxe VC
        • Charpie PM
        • Klibanski A
        Progressive trabecular osteopenia in women with hyperprolactinemic amenorrhea.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992; 75: 692-697
        • Kovacs CS
        • Chik CL
        Hyperprolactinemia caused by lactation and pituitary adenomas is associated with altered serum calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and PTH-related peptide levels.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995; 80: 3036-3042
        • Stiegler C
        • Leb G
        • Kleinert R
        • et al.
        Plasma levels of parathyroid hormone-related peptide are elevated in hyperprolactinemia and correlated to bone density status.
        J Bone Miner Res. 1995; 10: 751-759
        • Shaarawy M
        • El-Dawakhly AS
        • Mosaad M
        • El-Sadek MM
        Biomarkers of bone turnover and bone mineral density in hyperprolactinemic amenorrheic women.
        Clin Chem Lab Med. 1999; 37: 433-438
        • Di Somma C
        • Colao A
        • Di Sarno A
        • et al.
        Bone marker and bone density responses to dopamine agonist therapy in hyperprolactinemic males.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998; 83: 807-813
        • Nielsen S
        Epidemiology and mortality of eating disorders.
        Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2001; 24 (vii-viii.): 201-214
        • Biller BM
        • Saxe V
        • Herzog DB
        • Rosenthal DI
        • Holzman S
        • Klibanski A
        Mechanisms of osteoporosis in adult and adolescent women with anorexia nervosa.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989; 68: 548-554
        • Casper RC
        The pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
        Annu Rev Nutr. 1986; 6: 299-316
        • Friedman EJ
        Neuroendocrine aspects of bulimia.
        Adolesc Psychiatry. 1986; 13: 422-427
        • Rambaut PC
        • Goode AW
        Skeletal changes during space flight.
        Lancet. 1985; 2: 1050-1052
        • Donaldson CL
        • Hulley SB
        • Vogel JM
        • Hattner RS
        • Bayers JH
        • McMillan DE
        Effect of prolonged bed rest on bone mineral.
        Metabolism. 1970; 19: 1071-1084
        • LeBlanc AD
        • Schneider VS
        • Evans HJ
        • Engelbretson DA
        • Krebs JM
        Bone mineral loss and recovery after 17 weeks of bed rest.
        J Bone Miner Res. 1990; 5: 843-850
        • Zerwekh JE
        • Ruml LA
        • Gottschalk F
        • Pak CY
        The effects of twelve weeks of bed rest on bone histology, biochemical markers of bone turnover, and calcium homeostasis in eleven normal subjects.
        J Bone Miner Res. 1998; 13: 1594-1601
        • Palle S
        • Vico L
        • Bourrin S
        • Alexandre C
        Bone tissue response to four-month antiorthostatic bedrest: a bone histomorphometric study.
        Calcif Tissue Int. 1992; 51: 189-194
        • Lueken SA
        • Arnaud SB
        • Taylor AK
        • Baylink DJ
        Changes in markers of bone formation and resorption in a bed rest model of weightlessness.
        J Bone Miner Res. 1993; 8: 1433-1438
        • Melhus H
        • Michaelsson K
        • Kindmark A
        • et al.
        Excessive dietary intake of vitamin A is associated with reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for hip fracture.
        Ann Intern Med. 1998; 129: 770-778
        • Feskanich D
        • Singh V
        • Willett WC
        • Colditz GA
        Vitamin A intake and hip fractures among postmenopausal women.
        JAMA. 2002; 287: 47-54
        • Abildgaard N
        • Glerup H
        • Rungby J
        • et al.
        Biochemical markers of bone metabolism reflect osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity in multiple myeloma.
        Eur J Haematol. 2000; 64: 121-129
        • Davies FE
        • Rollinson SJ
        • Rawstron AC
        • et al.
        High-producer haplotypes of tumor necrosis factor alpha and lymphotoxin alpha are associated with an increased risk of myeloma and have an improved progression-free survival after treatment.
        J Clin Oncol. 2000; 18: 2843-2851
        • Marshall A
        • Kavanagh RT
        • Crisp AJ
        The effect of pamidronate on lumbar spine bone density and pain in osteoporosis secondary to systemic mastocytosis.
        Br J Rheumatol. 1997; 36: 393-396
        • Chines A
        • Pacifici R
        • Avioli LA
        • Korenblat PE
        • Teitelbaum SL
        Systemic mastocytosis and osteoporosis.
        Osteoporos Int. 1993; 3: 147-149
        • Pear BL
        Skeletal manifestations of the lymphomas and leukemias.
        Semin Roentgenol. 1974; 9: 229-240
        • Newman AJ
        • Melhorn DK
        Vertebral compression in childhood leukemia.
        Am J Dis Child. 1973; 125: 863-865
        • Diamond T
        • Stiel D
        • Posen S
        Osteoporosis in hemochromatosis: iron excess, gonadal deficiency, or other factors?.
        Ann Intern Med. 1989; 110: 430-436
        • Lebel E
        • Itzchaki M
        • Elstein D
        • Hadas-Halpern I
        • Abrahamov A
        • Zimran A
        Skeletal manifestations in Gaucher disease: presentation and treatment.
        Isr Med Assoc J. 1999; 1: 267-271
        • Pais MJ
        Disease states affecting both liver and bone.
        Radiol Clin North Am. 1980; 18: 253-267
        • Bauer DC
        • Browner WS
        • Cauley JA
        • et al.
        Factors associated with appendicular bone mass in older women.
        Ann Intern Med. 1993; 118: 741-742
        • Eddy RL
        Metabolic bone disease after gastrectomy.
        Am J Med. 1971; 50: 442-449
        • Mellstrom D
        • Johansson C
        • Johnell O
        • et al.
        Osteoporosis, metabolic aberrations, and increased risk for vertebral fractures after partial gastrectomy.
        Calcif Tissue Int. 1993; 53: 370-377
        • Deller DJ
        • Edwards RG
        • Addison M
        Calcium metabolism and the bone after partial gastrectomy: the nature and cause of the bone disorder.
        Aust Ann Med. 1963; 12: 295-309
        • Meyer D
        • Stavropolous S
        • Diamond B
        • Shane E
        • Green PH
        Osteoporosis in a North American adult population with celiac disease.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2001; 96: 112-119
        • Mora S
        • Weber G
        • Barera G
        • et al.
        Effect of gluten-free diet on bone mineral content in growing patients with celiac disease.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 1993; 57: 224-228
        • Kemppainen T
        • Kroger H
        • Janatuinen E
        • et al.
        Bone recovery after a gluten-free diet: a 5-year follow-up study.
        Bone. 1999; 25: 355-360
        • Mora S
        • Barera G
        • Beccio S
        • et al.
        Bone density and bone metabolism are normal after long-term gluten-free diet in young celiac patients.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1999; 94: 398-403
        • Schulte C
        • Dignass AU
        • Mann K
        • Goebell H
        Reduced bone mineral density and unbalanced bone metabolism in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 1998; 4: 268-275
        • Dibble JB
        • Sheridan P
        • Losowsky MS
        A survey of vitamin D deficiency in gastrointestinal and liver disorders.
        Q J Med. Winter 1984; 53: 119-134
        • Compston JE
        • Judd D
        • Crawley EO
        • et al.
        Osteoporosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
        Gut. 1987; 28: 410-415
        • Compston JE
        • Vedi S
        • Gianetta E
        • Watson G
        • Civalleri D
        • Scopinaro N
        Bone histomorphometry and vitamin D status after biliopancreatic bypass for obesity.
        Gastroenterology. 1984; 87: 350-356
        • Hahn TJ
        • Squires AE
        • Halstead LR
        • Strominger DB
        Reduced serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and disordered mineral metabolism in patients with cystic fibrosis.
        J Pediatr. 1979; 94: 38-42
        • Bachrach LK
        • Loutit CW
        • Moss RB
        Osteopenia in adults with cystic fibrosis.
        Am J Med. 1994; 96: 27-34
        • Fonseca V
        • Epstein O
        • Gill DS
        • et al.
        Hyperparathyroidism and low serum osteocalcin despite vitamin D replacement in primary biliary cirrhosis.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987; 64: 873-877
        • Long RG
        • Meinhard E
        • Skinner RT
        • Varghese Z
        • Wills MR
        • Sherlock S
        Clinical, biochemical, and histological studies of osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and parathyroid function in chronic liver disease.
        Gut. 1978; 19: 85-90
        • Stellon AJ
        • Davies A
        • Compston J
        • Williams R
        Bone loss in autoimmune chronic active hepatitis on maintenance corticosteroid therapy.
        Gastroenterology. 1985; 89: 1078-1083
        • Lindsell DR
        • Wilson AG
        • Maxwel JD
        Fractures on the chest radiograph in detection of alcoholic liver disease.
        Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1982; 285: 597-599
        • Israel Y
        • Orrego H
        • Holt S
        • Macdonald DW
        • Meema HE
        Identification of alcohol abuse: thoracic fractures on routine chest X-rays as indicators of alcoholism.
        Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1980; 4: 420-422
        • Turner RT
        Skeletal response to alcohol.
        Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2000; 24: 1693-1701
        • Bikle DD
        • Genant HK
        • Cann C
        • Recker RR
        • Halloran BP
        • Strewler GJ
        Bone disease in alcohol abuse.
        Ann Intern Med. 1985; 103: 42-48
        • Rodino MA
        • Shane E
        Osteoporosis after organ transplantation.
        Am J Med. 1998; 104: 459-469
      1. UNOS Transplant Patient DataSource.
        (Accessibility verified March 13, 2002.)
        • Katz I
        • Li M
        • Joffe I
        • et al.
        Influence of age on cyclosporin A-induced alterations in bone mineral metabolism in the rat in vivo.
        J Bone Miner Res. 1994; 9: 59-67
        • Romero DF
        • Buchinsky FJ
        • Rucinski B
        • et al.
        Rapamycin: a bone sparing immunosuppressant?.
        J Bone Miner Res. 1995; 10: 760-768
        • Julian BA
        • Laskow DA
        • Dubovsky J
        • Dubovsky EV
        • Curtis JJ
        • Quarles LD
        Rapid loss of vertebral mineral density after renal transplantation.
        N Engl J Med. 1991; 325: 544-550
        • Horber FF
        • Casez JP
        • Steiger U
        • Czerniak A
        • Montandon A
        • Jaeger P
        Changes in bone mass early after kidney transplantation.
        J Bone Miner Res. 1994; 9: 1-9
        • Nisbeth U
        • Lindh E
        • Ljunghall S
        • Backman U
        • Fellstrom B
        Fracture frequency after kidney transplantation.
        Transplant Proc. 1994; 26: 1764
        • Shane E
        • Rivas M
        • McMahon DJ
        • et al.
        Bone loss and turnover after cardiac transplantation.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997; 82: 1497-1506
        • Shane E
        • Rivas M
        • Staron RB
        • et al.
        Fracture after cardiac transplantation: a prospective longitudinal study.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996; 81: 1740-1746
        • Epstein S
        • Shane E
        • Bilezikian JP
        Organ transplantation and osteoporosis.
        Curr Opin Rheumatol. 1995; 7: 255-261
        • Shane E
        • Rivas MC
        • Silverberg SJ
        • Kim TS
        • Staron RB
        • Bilezikian JP
        Osteoporosis after cardiac transplantation.
        Am J Med. 1993; 94: 257-264
        • Monegal A
        • Navasa M
        • Guanabens N
        • et al.
        Osteoporosis and bone mineral metabolism disorders in cirrhotic patients referred for liver transplantation.
        Calcif Tissue Int. 1997; 60: 148-154
        • Porayko MK
        • Wiesner RH
        • Hay JE
        • et al.
        Bone disease in liver transplant recipients: incidence, timing, and risk factors.
        Transplant Proc. 1991; 23: 1462-1465
        • Haagsma EB
        • Thijn CJ
        • Post JG
        • Slooff MJ
        • Gips CH
        Bone disease after orthotopic liver transplantation.
        J Hepatol. 1988; 6: 94-100
        • Ramsey-Goldman R
        • Dunn JE
        • Dunlop DD
        • et al.
        Increased risk of fracture in patients receiving solid organ transplants.
        J Bone Miner Res. 1999; 14: 456-463
        • Eastell R
        • Dickson RE
        • Hodgson SF
        • et al.
        Rates of vertebral bone loss before and after liver transplantation in women with primary biliary cirrhosis.
        Hepatology. 1991; 14: 296-300
        • Ott SM
        • Aitken ML
        Osteoporosis in patients with cystic fibrosis.
        Clin Chest Med. 1998; 19: 555-567
        • Shane E
        • Papadopoulos A
        • Staron RB
        • et al.
        Bone loss and fracture after lung transplantation.
        Transplantation. 1999; 68: 220-227
        • Cahill BC
        • O'Rourke MK
        • Parker S
        • Stringham JC
        • Karwande SV
        • Knecht TP
        Prevention of bone loss and fracture after lung transplantation: a pilot study.
        Transplantation. 2001; 72: 1251-1255
        • Kelly PJ
        • Atkinson K
        • Ward RL
        • Sambrook PN
        • Biggs JC
        • Eisman JA
        Reduced bone mineral density in men and women with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
        Transplantation. 1990; 50: 881-883
        • Kashyap A
        • Kandeel F
        • Yamauchi D
        • et al.
        Effects of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on recipient bone mineral density: a prospective study.
        Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2000; 6: 344-351
        • Nysom K
        • Holm K
        • Michaelsen KF
        • et al.
        Bone mass after allogeneic BMT for childhood leukaemia or lymphoma.
        Bone Marrow Transplant. 2000; 25: 191-196
        • Stein B
        • Takizawa M
        • Katz I
        • et al.
        Salmon calcitonin prevents cyclosporin-A-induced high turnover bone loss.
        Endocrinology. 1991; 129: 92-98
        • Grotz WH
        • Rump LC
        • Niessen A
        • et al.
        Treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis after kidney transplantation.
        Transplantation. 1998; 66: 1004-1008
        • Garcia-Delgado I
        • Prieto S
        • Gil-Fraguas L
        • Robles E
        • Rufilanchas JJ
        • Hawkins F
        Calcitonin, etidronate, and calcidiol treatment in bone loss after cardiac transplantation.
        Calcif Tissue Int. 1997; 60: 155-159
        • Saag KG
        • Emkey R
        • Schnitzer TJ
        • et al.
        Alendronate for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.
        N Engl J Med. 1998; 339: 292-299
        • Buchs N
        • Helg C
        • Collao C
        • et al.
        Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is associated with a preferential femoral neck bone loss.
        Osteoporosis Int. 2001; 12: 880-886
        • Arlen DJ
        • Lambert K
        • Ioannidis G
        • Adachi JD
        Treatment of established bone loss after renal transplantation with etidronate.
        Transplantation. 2001; 71: 669-773
        • Henderson K
        • Eisman J
        • Keogh A
        • et al.
        Protective effect of short-term calcitriol or cyclical etidronate on bone loss after cardiac or lung transplantation.
        J Bone Miner Res. 2001; 16: 565-571
        • Weber TJ
        • Quarles LD
        Preventing bone loss after renal transplantation with bisphosphonates: we can… but should we? [editorial].
        Kidney Int. 2000; 57: 735-737
        • Valero MA
        • Loinaz C
        • Larrodera L
        • Leon M
        • Moreno E
        • Hawkins F
        Calcitonin and bisphosphonates treatment in bone loss after liver transplantation.
        Calcif Tissue Int. 1995; 57: 15-19
        • Sambrook P
        • Henderson NK
        • Keogh A
        • et al.
        Effect of calcitriol on bone loss after cardiac or lung transplantation.
        J Bone Miner Res. 2000; 15: 1818-1824
        • Lukert BP
        • Raisz LG
        Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: pathogenesis and management.
        Ann Intern Med. 1990; 112: 352-364
        • Sambrook PN
        • Kelly PJ
        • Keogh AM
        • et al.
        Bone loss after heart transplantation: a prospective study.
        J Heart Lung Transplant. 1994; 13: 116-120
        • Sambrook PN
        • Kelly PJ
        • Fontana D
        • et al.
        Mechanisms of rapid bone loss following cardiac transplantation.
        Osteoporos Int. 1994; 4: 273-276
        • Economides PA
        • Kaklamani VG
        • Karavas I
        • Papaioannou GI
        • Supran S
        • Mirel RD
        Assessment of physician responses to abnormal results of bone densitometry studies.
        Endocr Pract. 2000; 6: 351-356
        • Fitzpatrick LA
        • Loftus J
        • Faurot M
        • Bolander M
        Secondary causes of hip fracture in community-dwelling patients [abstract].
        J Bone Miner Res. 2001; 16 (Abstract SA284.): S273