PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
- Pretreatment for nerve agent exposure.in: Sidell FR Takafuji ET Franz DR Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Borden Institute, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC1997: 181-196
- Pyridostigmine used as a nerve agent pretreatment under wartime conditions.JAMA. 1991; 266: 693-695
- Chronic pyridostigmine bromide administration: side effects among soldiers working in a desert environment.Mil Med. 1992; 157: 250-254
- Interactive effects of pyridostigmine and altitude on performance.in: Proceedings of the Sixth Medical Chemical Defense Bioscience Review. US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md1987: 605-607
- Pyridostigmine bromide effects of performance of tactical transport aircrews.in: Proceedings of the Sixth Medical Chemical Defense Bioscience Review. US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md1987: 609-611
- The use of therapeutic mixtures in the treatment of cholinesterase inhibition.Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1981; 1: 214-216
- The influence of pyridostigmine administration on human neuromuscular functions—studies in healthy human subjects.Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1991; 16: 288-298
- The effect of pyridostigmine on bronchial hyperreactivity.Chest. 1993; 103: 1755-1758
- A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses. Vol 2. Pyridostigmine Bromide. RAND, Santa Monica, Calif1999
- Pyridostigmine brain penetration under stress enhances neuronal excitability and induces early immediate transcriptional response.Nat Med. 1996; 2: 1382-1385
- Stress does not enable pyridostigmine to inhibit brain cholinesterase after parenteral administration.Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2000; 164: 301-304
- Co-exposure to pyridostigmine bromide, DEET, and/or permethrin causes sensorimotor deficit and alterations in brain acetylcholinesterase activity.Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004; 77: 253-262
- Self-reported illness and health status among Gulf War veterans: a population-based study.JAMA. 1997; 277: 238-245
- Unexplained illness among Persian Gulf War veterans in an Air National Guard unit: preliminary report—August 1990-March 1995.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1995; 44: 443-447
- Symptoms in 18,495 Persian Gulf War veterans: latency of onset and lack of association with self-reported exposures.J Occup Environ Med. 1998; 40: 520-528
- War syndromes and their evaluation: from the U.S. Civil War to the Persian Gulf War.Ann Intern Med. 1996; 125: 398-405
- Gulf War illnesses: causes and controversies.Mayo Clin Proc. 2000; 75: 811-819
- In the borderland between health and disease following the Gulf War.Mayo Clin Proc. 2000; 75: 777-779
Bolton HT. Use and safety of pesticides (repellents) in Persian Gulf. Presented at: Department of Veterans Affairs Update on Health Consequences of Persian Gulf Service: Baltimore, Md; July 18, 1995.
- Review of the biodistribution and toxicity of the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET).J Toxicol Environ Health. 1986; 18: 503-525
- Comparative percutaneous absorption of lindane and permethrin.Arch Dermatol. 1996; 132: 901-905
- Self-reported exposure to neurotoxic chemical combinations in the Gulf War: a cross-sectional epidemiologic study.JAMA. 1997; 277: 231-237
- Neurotoxicity resulting from coexposure to pyridostigmine bromide, DEET, and permethrin.J Toxicol Environ Health. 1996; 48: 35-56
- Acute oral toxicity study of pyridostigmine bromide, permethrin, and DEET in the laboratory rat.J Toxicol Environ Health. 1997; 50: 113-124
- Initial evaluation of N,N-diethl-m-toluamide and permethrin absorption in human volunteers under stress conditions.Mil Med. 2006; 171: 122-127
- Personal Protective Measures Against Insects and Other Arthropods of Military Significance. Defense Pest Management Information Analysis Center, Forest Glen Section, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC1996 (Technical Guide No. 36.)
- Acute psychophysiologic reactivity and risk of cardiovascular disease: a review and methodologic critique.Psychol Bull. 1984; 96: 435-464
- Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics Documentation. Vol. 1. Test Administration Guide. Office of Military Performance Assessment Technology, Silver Spring, Md1992
- Increased neurotoxicity following concurrent exposure to pyridostigmine bromide, DEET, and chlorpyrifos.Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1996; 34: 201-222
- Neurochemical effects of DDT in rat brain in vivo.Arch Toxicol Suppl. 1986; 9: 14-26
This study was supported by a competitive grant from the US Army Medical Research Materiel Command under the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs, DAMD17-00-1-0715.
None of the authors have any financial or other conflicts of interest regarding the subject matter addressed in this article.
The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be considered as official or as reflecting the views of the Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, or Department of Defense.