Advertisement
Mayo Clinic Proceedings Home

A Population-Based Study of the Incidence of Burning Mouth Syndrome

      Abstract

      Objective

      To calculate the incidence of burning mouth syndrome (BMS) in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 2000 through 2010.

      Patients and Methods

      By using the medical record linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, we identified newly diagnosed cases of BMS from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010. Diagnoses were confirmed through the presence of burning pain symptoms of the oral mucosa with normal oral examination findings and no associated clinical signs. Incidence was estimated using decennial census data for Olmsted County.

      Results

      In total, 169 incident cases were identified, representing an annual age- and sex-adjusted incidence of BMS of 11.4 per 100,000 person-years. Age-adjusted incidence was significantly higher in women than in men (18.8 [95% CI, 16.4-22.9] per 100,000 person-years vs 3.7 [95% CI, 2.6-5.7] per 100,000 person-years; P<.001). Postmenopausal women aged 50 to 89 years had the highest incidence of the disease, with the maximal rate observed in women aged 70 to 79 years (70.3 per 100,000 person-years). After the age of 50 years, the incidence of BMS in men and women significantly increased across age groups (P=.02). Study participants residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, were predominantly white, which is a study limitation. In addition, diagnostic criteria for identifying BMS in the present study may not apply for all situations because no diagnostic criteria are universally recognized for identifying BMS.

      Conclusion

      To our knowledge, this is the first population-based incidence study of BMS reported to date. The data reveal that BMS is an uncommon disease highly associated with female sex and advancing age.

      Abbreviations and Acronyms:

      BMS (burning mouth syndrome), REP (Rochester Epidemiology Project)
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Mayo Clinic Proceedings
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Tammiala-Salonen T.
        • Hiidenkari T.
        • Parvinen T.
        Burning mouth in a Finnish adult population.
        Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1993; 21: 67-71
        • Gao J.
        • Chen L.
        • Zhou J.
        • Peng J.
        A case-control study on etiological factors involved in patients with burning mouth syndrome.
        J Oral Pathol Med. 2009; 38: 24-28
        • Grushka M.
        Clinical features of burning mouth syndrome.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1987; 63: 30-36
        • Ship J.A.
        • Grushka M.
        • Lipton J.A.
        • Mott A.E.
        • Sessle B.J.
        • Dionne R.A.
        Burning mouth syndrome: an update.
        J Am Dent Assoc. 1995; 126: 842-853
        • Bergdahl M.
        • Bergdahl J.
        Burning mouth syndrome: prevalence and associated factors.
        J Oral Pathol Med. 1999; 28: 350-354
        • Ching V.
        • Grushka M.
        • Darling M.
        • Su N.
        Increased prevalence of geographic tongue in burning mouth complaints: a retrospective study.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012; 114: 444-448
        • Schiavone V.
        • Adamo D.
        • Ventrella G.
        • et al.
        Anxiety, depression, and pain in burning mouth syndrome: first chicken or egg?.
        Headache. 2012; 52: 1019-1025
        • Savage N.W.
        • Boras V.V.
        • Barker K.
        Burning mouth syndrome: clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.
        Australas J Dermatol. 2006; 47 (quiz 82-83): 77-81
        • Wardrop R.W.
        • Hailes J.
        • Burger H.
        • Reade P.C.
        Oral discomfort at menopause.
        Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1989; 67: 535-540
        • Lauria G.
        • Majorana A.
        • Borgna M.
        • et al.
        Trigeminal small-fiber sensory neuropathy causes burning mouth syndrome.
        Pain. 2005; 115: 332-337
        • Grushka M.
        • Sessle B.J.
        • Howley T.P.
        Psychophysical assessment of tactile, pain and thermal sensory functions in burning mouth syndrome.
        Pain. 1987; 28: 169-184
        • Heckmann S.M.
        • Heckmann J.G.
        • Hilz M.J.
        • et al.
        Oral mucosal blood flow in patients with burning mouth syndrome.
        Pain. 2001; 90: 281-286
        • Svensson P.
        • Bjerring P.
        • Arendt-Nielsen L.
        • Kaaber S.
        Sensory and pain thresholds to orofacial argon laser stimulation in patients with chronic burning mouth syndrome.
        Clin J Pain. 1993; 9: 207-215
        • Hagelberg N.
        • Forssell H.
        • Rinne J.O.
        • et al.
        Striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in burning mouth syndrome.
        Pain. 2003; 101: 149-154
        • Steele J.C.
        • Bruce A.J.
        • Davis M.D.
        • Torgerson R.R.
        • Drage L.A.
        • Rogers III, R.S.
        Clinically relevant patch test results in patients with burning mouth syndrome.
        Dermatitis. 2012; 23: 61-70
        • Gremeau-Richard C.
        • Woda A.
        • Navez M.L.
        • et al.
        Topical clonazepam in stomatodynia: a randomised placebo-controlled study.
        Pain. 2004; 108: 51-57
        • Steele J.C.
        • Bruce A.J.
        • Drage L.A.
        • Rogers III, R.S.
        Alpha-lipoic acid treatment of 31 patients with sore, burning mouth.
        Oral Dis. 2008; 14: 529-532
        • Abetz L.M.
        • Savage N.W.
        Burning mouth syndrome and psychological disorders.
        Aust Dent J. 2009; 54 (quiz 173): 84-93
        • Kenchadze R.
        • Iverieli M.
        • Okribelashvili N.
        • Geladze N.
        • Khachapuridze N.
        The psychological aspects of burning mouth syndrome.
        Georgian Med News. 2011; : 24-28
        • Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS)
        The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version).
        Cephalalgia. 2013; 33: 629-808
        • Mignogna M.D.
        • Fedele S.
        • Lo Russo L.
        • Leuci S.
        • Lo Muzio L.
        The diagnosis of burning mouth syndrome represents a challenge for clinicians.
        J Orofac Pain. 2005; 19: 168-173
        • Dangore-Khasbage S.
        • Khairkar P.H.
        • Degwekar S.S.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of oral mucosal disorders in institutionalized and non-institutionalized psychiatric patients: a study from AVBR Hospital in central India.
        J Oral Sci. 2012; 54: 85-91
        • Netto F.O.
        • Diniz I.M.
        • Grossmann S.M.
        • de Abreu M.H.
        • do Carmo M.A.
        • Aguiar M.C.
        Risk factors in burning mouth syndrome: a case-control study based on patient records.
        Clin Oral Investig. 2011; 15: 571-575
        • Suzuki N.
        • Mashu S.
        • Toyoda M.
        • Nishibori M.
        Oral burning sensation: prevalence and gender differences in a Japanese population.
        Pain Pract. 2010; 10: 306-311
        • Rabiei M.
        • Kasemnezhad E.
        • Masoudi rad H.
        • Shakiba M.
        • Pourkay H.
        Prevalence of oral and dental disorders in institutionalised elderly people in Rasht, Iran.
        Gerodontology. 2010; 27: 174-177
        • Moore P.A.
        • Guggenheimer J.
        • Orchard T.
        Burning mouth syndrome and peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
        J Diabetes Complications. 2007; 21: 397-402
        • Brailo V.
        • Vuéiaeeviae-Boras V.
        • Alajbeg I.Z.
        • Alajbeg I.
        • Lukenda J.
        • Aeurkoviae M.
        Oral burning symptoms and burning mouth syndrome—significance of different variables in 150 patients.
        Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2006; 11: E252-E255
        • Riley III, J.L.
        • Gilbert G.H.
        • Heft M.W.
        Orofacial pain symptom prevalence: selective sex differences in the elderly?.
        Pain. 1998; 76: 97-104
        • Hakeberg M.
        • Berggren U.
        • Hägglin C.
        • Ahlqwist M.
        Reported burning mouth symptoms among middle-aged and elderly women.
        Eur J Oral Sci. 1997; 105: 539-543
        • Ben Aryeh H.
        • Gottlieb I.
        • Ish-Shalom S.
        • David A.
        • Szargel H.
        • Laufer D.
        Oral complaints related to menopause.
        Maturitas. 1996; 24: 185-189
        • Thorstensson B.
        • Hugoson A.
        Prevalence of some oral complaints and their relation to oral health variables in an adult Swedish population.
        Acta Odontol Scand. 1996; 54: 257-262
        • Lipton J.A.
        • Ship J.A.
        • Larach-Robinson D.
        Estimated prevalence and distribution of reported orofacial pain in the United States.
        J Am Dent Assoc. 1993; 124: 115-121
        • Torgerson R.R.
        Burning mouth syndrome.
        Dermatol Ther. 2010; 23: 291-298
        • St Sauver J.L.
        • Grossardt B.R.
        • Leibson C.L.
        • Yawn B.P.
        • Melton III, L.J.
        • Rocca W.A.
        Generalizability of epidemiological findings and public health decisions: an illustration from the Rochester Epidemiology Project.
        Mayo Clin Proc. 2012; 87: 151-160
        • Rocca W.A.
        • Yawn B.P.
        • St Sauver J.L.
        • Grossardt B.R.
        • Melton III, L.J.
        History of the Rochester Epidemiology Project: half a century of medical records linkage in a US population.
        Mayo Clin Proc. 2012; 87: 1202-1213
        • St Sauver J.L.
        • Grossardt B.R.
        • Yawn B.P.
        • et al.
        Data resource profile: the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) medical records-linkage system.
        Int J Epidemiol. 2012; 41: 1614-1624
        • McCullagh P.
        • Nelder J.A.
        Generalized Linear Models. Vol 12. Chapman & Hall, London1983
        • Votta T.J.
        • Mandel L.
        Somatoform salivary complaints: case reports.
        N Y State Dent J. 2002; 68: 22-26
        • University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute
        County Health Rankings & Roadmaps: Building a Culture of Health, County by County. Olmsted County, Minnesota.
        County Health Rankings & Roadmaps, Madison, WI2014 (Accessed April 14, 2014)
        • Lamey P.J.
        • Lamb A.B.
        Prospective study of aetiological factors in burning mouth syndrome.
        Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1988; 296: 1243-1246
        • Gurvits G.E.
        • Tan A.
        Burning mouth syndrome.
        World J Gastroenterol. 2013; 19: 665-672
        • Lamey P.J.
        • Lamb A.B.
        • Hughes A.
        • Milligan K.A.
        • Forsyth A.
        Type 3 burning mouth syndrome: psychological and allergic aspects.
        J Oral Pathol Med. 1994; 23: 216-219
        • Thoppay J.R.
        • De Rossi S.S.
        • Ciarrocca K.N.
        Burning mouth syndrome.
        Dent Clin North Am. 2013; 57: 497-512
        • Lamey P.J.
        • Lewis M.A.
        Oral medicine in practice: burning mouth syndrome.
        Br Dent J. 1989; 167: 197-200