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Association Between Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Depression in a Large Sample of Healthy Adults: The Cooper Center Longitudinal Study

  • MinhTu T. Hoang
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry The university of Texas Southwestern Medical center, Dallas, TX
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  • Laura F. DeFina
    Affiliations
    The university of Texas Southwestern Medical center, Dallas, and The cooper institute, Dallas, TX
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  • Benjamin L. Willis
    Affiliations
    The university of Texas Southwestern Medical center, Dallas, and The cooper institute, Dallas, TX
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  • David S. Leonard
    Affiliations
    Division of Biostatistics, department of clinical Sciences, Dallas, TX
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  • Myron F. Weiner
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry The university of Texas Southwestern Medical center, Dallas, TX
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Dr Brown has research support from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institute on Drug Abuse, the Stanley Medical Research institute, and AstraZeneca.
    E. Sherwood Brown
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to E. Sherwood Brown, MD, PhD, Department of Psychiatry, UT Southwestern Medical center at Dallas, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Mc 8849, Dallas, TX 75390-8849
    Footnotes
    1 Dr Brown has research support from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institute on Drug Abuse, the Stanley Medical Research institute, and AstraZeneca.
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry The university of Texas Southwestern Medical center, Dallas, TX
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Dr Brown has research support from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institute on Drug Abuse, the Stanley Medical Research institute, and AstraZeneca.

      OBJECTIVE

      To investigate the association between serum vitamin D levels and depression in a large database of patients from the Cooper Clinic.

      PATIENTS AND METHODS

      We conducted a cross-sectional study of 12,594 participants seen at the Cooper Clinic from November 27, 2006, to October 4, 2010. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was analyzed, and depression was defined as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score of 10 or more. Those with and those without a history of depression represented 2 distinct populations with respect to CES-D scores; accordingly, they were analyzed separately.

      RESULTS

      In the total sample, higher vitamin D levels were associated with a significantly decreased risk [odds ratio, 0.92 (95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.97)] of current depression based on CES-D scores. The finding was stronger in those with a prior history of depression [odds ratio, 0.90 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.98)] and not significant in those without a history of depression [odds ratio, 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-1.02)].

      CONCLUSION

      We found that low vitamin D levels are associated with depressive symptoms, especially in persons with a history of depression. These findings suggest that primary care patients with a history of depression may be an important target for assessment of vitamin D levels.
      BMI (body mass index), CCLS (Cooper Center Longitudinal Study), CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), 25(OH)D (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D)
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